What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes is a homeostatic disease which presents when the levels of blood glucose within the body are too high. Glucose is a form of carbohydrate and is the predominant energy source within the body (Spurway and Wackerhage, 2006). In order for the body to utilise glucose for cellular energy, it must be transported to the cells via the hormone Insulin, which is produced within the pancreas, a glandular organ of the digestive and endocrine system, located in the abdominal cavity (Beger et al. 2008). Glucose can then be utilised to provide energy to cells, or be stored within muscles as glycogen or in excess as fat. Excess glucose can cause significant health problems which can occur as a result of insulin resistance or underproduction as in Type 2 Diabetes Millitus or as a result of a genetic defect as in Type 1 diabetes Millitus, which causes the body to stop producing insulin as a result of an autoimmune response which leads to the destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas (Islet) (Spurway and Wackerhage, 2006).
Spurway, N. Wackerhage, H. (2006) Genetics and Molecular Biology of Muscle Adaptation, London: Elsevier Limited.
Beger, H. Warshaw, A. Buchler R.K. Lerch, M. Neoptolemos, K.S. Whitcomb, D. (2008) The Pancreas: An Integrated Textbook Of Basic Science, Medicine, and Surgery, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
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