REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept. It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries. (Dena taylor-2010).
A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
Review of literature is a written summary of the state of an art on a research problem. It helps the researcher to familiarize themselves with the knowledge base. It includes the activities involved in identifying and searching comprehensive picture of a state of knowledge on that topic (Polit and Hungler, 1995).
The review of literature has been described under the following headings:
- SECTION A: Studies related to schizophrenia
- SECTION B: Studies related to Creative Art Therapy
- SECTION C: Studies related to Creative Art Therapy on schizophrenia
SECTION A: STUDIES RELATED TO SCHIZOPHRENIA
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of clozapine in the treatment of resistant schizophrenia in Beijing, China. Twenty two patients with treatment of resistant schizophrenia were selected for the study by using randomized sampling technique. This samples were assessed by using the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia. The results showed that 60% of the study participants responded to clozapine therapy during the observation period. The researcher concluded that clozapine has therapeutic efficacy in treatment of resistant schizophrenia. (Xiang,Y. T, 2009).
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A descriptive study was conducted to assess the importance of genetic factors in men with early onset of schizophrenia in Surat, India. A total sample of 40 male schizophrenic patients with clinical onset before the age of 25 years were selected by using convenience sampling technique. Samples were assessed by using structured questionnaire. The results showed that one of the parent of 12(30%) patients had the history of schizophrenia. The researcher concluded that the genetic causes are more important in the etiology of schizophrenia. (Mukesh Patel, 2009).
A descriptive study was conducted to assess the side effects of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. A total no.of 1493 schizophrenic patients were recruited at 57 United states sites by using convenience sampling technique. They were evaluated using the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia. The result showed that olanzapine was associated with more discontinuation for weight gain or metabolic effects and perphenazine was associated with more discontinuation due to the presence of extra pyramidal effects. The researcher concluded that majority of patients discontinued the medicines owing to inefficacy or intolerable side effects or for other reasons. (Lieberman,J.A, 2005).
A descriptive study was conducted to assess the association between violence and schizophrenia in Mullen, Australia. A total no.of 40 patients were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Patients were assessed by using structured questionnaire. Research shows that violence is a result of comorbid substance abuse or psychotic symptoms. The result showed that most studies conform the association between violence and schizophrenia. The researcher concluded that the proportion of violent crime in society attributable to schizophrenia falls below 10 %. ( Walsh,E. 1997).
A preliminary study was conducted to assess the effect of psycho education program on self efficacy of schizophrenic patients utilizing the psychiatric day care. A total no.of 33 schizophrenic patients utilizing the psychiatric day care were selected by convenience sampling technique for this study. Generalized Self Efficacy Scale (GSE Scale) was used for the evaluation 1 month before intervention, immediately before intervention and after the completion of intervention. He has incorporated the social skills training into psycho education. The results showed that Self Efficacy score changed significantly between immediately before and after completion of the intervention. The investigators concluded that the psycho education was effective in increasing the self efficacy among schizophrenic patients. (Yamaji ,2005).
An explorative study was conducted to assess the behavioral impairments and social disabilities among schizophrenic patients. A total no of 520 patients from seven countries were participated in the study. Disability assessment scale and Psychological impairments assessment scale were used to for this study. The results showed that there is an impairment in sexual relationship, workplace, self care and also in social roles. Negative symptoms such as inactivity, loss of interest, initiative and poverty of speech also present in the patients. (WHO, 2000).
A descriptive study was conducted by Schizophrenia Research Foundation and Madras Medical College to assess the prevalence of schizophrenia in Tamil Nadu. Two areas Chintadripet and Triplicane were chosen for the study and door to door survey technique was adopted. The Indian psychiatric survey schedule and present state examination schedule was used for assessing the prevalence of the schizophrenia. The study was concluded that the prevalence rate of schizophrenia was highest in the area and a higher rate have seen in males and in age group of 15 – 45 years respectively. The higher prevalence rates were shown in slum areas, those living alone, in those with no schooling, in Christian communities and in the unemployed group. (Padmavathi, 1998).
SECTION B: STUDIES RELATED TO CREATIVE ART THERAPY
An experimental study was conducted on the effectiveness of Creative Art Therapy on the treatment of aggression in Netherland. A total no.of 100 samples were selected by using convenience sampling technique. They were used the structured questionnaire in this study. The results showed that expressing aggression with help of art material safely helps to explore one’s aggression. The researcher concluded that art therapy is an useful modality to suppress the anger that explodes in uncontrolled destructive aggression. (Henk, 2006).
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An interventional study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Creative Art Therapy in reducing anxiety and fear in hospitalized children in Punjab, India. Samples of 22 children in the age group of 3-10 years were selected by using the convenience sampling technique. Creative Art therapy intervention was given 60 minutes for seven days. The Beck Anxiety Inventory Scale was used to measure the anxiety of the samples. The result shows that there was a significant difference between pre test (22%) and post test (11%) scores of anxiety. So the researcher concluded that the creative art therapy is effective in reducing fear and and anxiety among hospitalized children. (Hamre.H,J, 2006).
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of creative art therapy with incarcerated women who have experienced the death of a loved one. A total no.of 7 samples were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Semi structured interview was conducted before the study. One hour Creative Art Therapy sessions were offered to eight incarcerated bereaved women for a period of eight weeks. After two weeks after treatment, a 45-minute interview provided to the women with the opportunity to describe their personal experiences and responses in regard to the Creative art Therapy sessions. Result shown that seven women described positive outcomes following the Creative Art Therapy intervention and they had an opportunity to express their feelings. (Horn et al., 2004)
An experimental study was conducted on the effectiveness of Creative Art Therapy and cognitive behavior therapy with sexually abused children. A total no.of 120 samples were selected in the age group between 8-11 years by using purposive sampling technique. Two group research design were used by dividing the group into two groups, 60 children in each group. Therapy sessions were held once a week for 12 weeks. Symptoms were assessed with trauma symptom checklist for children. The result showed that there is a significant reduction in symptoms commonly associated with sexual abuse who had been received creative art therapy than cognitive behavior therapy. (Pifalo. T, 2002).
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of creative art therapy on self esteem and anxiety of nursing home elderly residents. Quasi experimental research design was used. A total no.of 20 older adult psychiatric patients were selected by using purposive sampling technique. The state trait Anxiety Inventory Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the anxiety and depression. Creative art therapy intervention was given three days per week for four regular weeks. The result indicated that the creative art therapy improved the level of self esteem and reduced the anxiety and depression of older adults. (Henry, L. 1997).
SECTION C: STUDIES RELATED TO CREATIVE ART THERAPY ON SCHIZOPHRENIA
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of creative art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for patients with schizophrenia in London. A total no.of 43 participants were selected by using randomized sampling technique. Symptoms were assessed with the help of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Allocated participants were offered with activity three sessions a week for 90 minutes per day and the duration for an average of 2 months. The result indicated that Creative Art Therapy produced statistically significant positive effect on negative symptoms. (Philrichardson, 2007).
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of creative art therapy among schizophrenic patients. Totally 45 participants were selected by using convenience sampling technique. Twenty sessions of creative art therapy have given for the selected samples. Symptoms assessed before and after the intervention by using positive and negative syndrome scale. The result showed that improved mental health especially reduction in negative and general symptoms in schizophrenia. (Crawford, 2007).
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effects of Creative Art Therapy among schizophrenic patients and their relatives on symptoms, personal and social skills. Total no.of 9 patients and 7 patient’s relatives included in this study. Totally 17 sessions of Creative Art Therapy intervention were given for the patients and relatives for 30 minutes duration. Participants were assessed by using Positive and Negative Syndrome scale. Whereas all participants relatives were assessed through Beck Depression Inventory Scale. The results showed that creative art therapy can reduce negative symptoms, particularly social functioning and depressive symptoms of schizophrenia in which antipsychotics are not helpful. (Anadolu, 2013).
A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Creative Art Therapy in acute schizophrenic patients in Berlin, Germany. A total no.of 60 samples were included in this study by using convenience sampling technique. Creative Art herapy have been given to the experimental group for 45 minutes daily for two weeks period. Before and after the study researcher were applied PANSS to all participants. The result shows that significant changes in negative symptoms and only mild effect on positive symptoms. So the researcher concluded that Creative art therapy is more effective on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. ( Dannecker, 2012).
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Creative Art Therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia in United Kingdom. A total no.of 417 samples were selected by using convenience sampling technique for the study. Group creative art therapy was delivered by the researcher for 90 minutes duration per day for two weeks. Before and after the study researcher were assessed by using PANSS to all participants. The result shows that some improvement in primary outcomes of participants. So the researcher concluded that creative art therapy can improve global functioning and reduction of symptoms in schizophrenia. (Crawford, 2012).
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