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Orem’s Model of Nursing and Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory

Info: 2702 words (11 pages) Nursing Essay
Published: 17th Jun 2020

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Tagged: theorydiversity

Orem’s Model of Nursing and Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity Theory

Dorothea Orem and Madeleine Leininger are nurse theorists who made an impact by providing awareness of patient’s autonomy in personal care and culture awareness.  Orem’s Model of Nursing is based on the human adaptation model. This model is based on the expanding movement in psychology that showcases human experiences as ideal, or the principle of human nature that showcases the fact that humans have a full purpose.  They described the systems as being made different complex systems that are used for a greater ideal, not simply just a reason.  Henderson’s Self-Efficacy Theory showcases how individuals can behave.  Henderson’s theory viewed the process that consists of assessment, nursing diagnosis, outcome, planning, implementation, and evaluation as the best approach to a patient’s problem. This paper will showcase the theories while showing just how much they made an impact.

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In the late 1950s, Madeleine Leininger identified transcultural nursing, and well into 1980, she presented the transcultural health model. The Leininger Sunrise Model was first described in 1984 and showcases the variety of cultural interviews, tools, and therapeutic means. This theory enlightened nurses to the need of considering the impact of cultural beliefs on the health and well-being of the patient. She had a fundamental influence regarding the concept of nursing is synonymous with caring.  Her pediatric nursing experience and her assessment of the notion of adaptation helped her create this theory.  She written that the resilience of children, a major impact of her adviser, Dorothy Johnson, and the use of von Bertalanffy’s system theory were the guidelines for the 1964 Adaptation Model structure. (McEwen & Wills, 2014). The process of changes to the environment and their responses were also examined.

Henderson created the Self-Efficacy Theory and derived from her practice of nursing and educational activity. Virginia Henderson created significant principles to guide the 20th century’s most effective nursing science growth.  She described the major roles of the nurse as a backup system, that is distinct and complimentary, with the aim of helping a person become as independent as possible.

Orem stated that any particular theorist provided the basis for the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). She showed interest in multiple theories, however she references only Parsons’ structure of social action and von Bertalanffy’s system theorirs. Taylor, Geden, Isaramalai, and Wongvatunyu, however, said that the ontology of Orem’s SCDNT is the foundation of realism, and that the focus is on the person. The SCDNT is a fully developed educated theory system of nursing. Presently, the theory is known to as self-care science and nursing theory. Taylor and Renpenning argue for Orem’s magnum opus and cite widely from her works for the science basis of life work. In Orem’s theory, veritivity examines four aspects of society: the meaning of life, the shared purpose of humanity, the purpose of human existence, and activity and creativity for the common good.  According to this theory, people share a common destiny to make sense of mutual relationships with other people, the world, and God (McEwen & Wills, 2014).  Everyone has a personal and unique identity that is unlike anyone else.  Roy think that nurses add to the common good of society through the use of their knowledge and how they care for the patient.

Henderson thought that basic needs were needed in order to survive (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).  Included in those needs were the need to eat and drink, delete the body of toxins, sleep, and to keep the body clean.  Self-efficacy of an individual refers to maintaining physiological and emotional balance (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).  For a person to be whole, the mind and body have to be one.  The importance of basic human needs is the foundation of the nursing practice.  This foundation has led to the development of the theory regarding the needs of the patient and the role of the nurse to help meet these needs (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).  The nurse operates as a replacement for this individual’s incapacity to maintain the wholeness or independence of the patient when severe illness occurs in the life of a person.

There are some major assumptions about these theories. First off, Orem’s theory has stayed intact for the most part, but the theory has changed somewhat to adapt to the times. Self-care, self-care deficit, and the nursing system are the three theories that are focused on the most. Orem showcased the theories as an art form in which the nurse gives specialized care and attention to the patient to allow them to meet their need for self-care. Leininger also showcased her theory to help promote health and healing. Her model, however, was to introduce cultural impact on the healing of the patient.

The patient is the whole being, who changes and adapts to their surroundings.  A person strives towards biological, psychological, and social adaption (McEwen & Wills, 2014).  The environment consists of their surroundings and how they behave as either an individual or in a group setting. Health is described as the health-sickness continuum, which goes from the apex of health to dying.  It is the strategy for being a whole person. The target of nursing is to guarantee, advance, and upgrade prosperity, keep away from harm, and simplicity suffering through assurance and treatment of patients, propelling the prosperity of individuals and social requests. There are four adaptable modes, physical, character, part work, and interdependency; conduct in one territory may have an effect for one or the various modes (McEwen & Wills, 2014).

In Henderson’s hypothesis, the idea of self-adequacy is critical to affecting wellbeing conduct change. The body will dependably request change when there is something strange. It is the attendants’ undertaking to attempt to keep up change calm and help patients through at all times, driving them and managing them. Medical attendants do this by offering help and data. Beside attempting to discover a parity in the majority of Henderson’s fourteen parts the attendant ought to likewise attempt to limit the pressure that the patient is experiencing. By doing this, the attendant will assist patients with relaxing and have a clearer personality and an improvement in wellbeing conduct. A few activities that the medical attendant should mull over to connect any hole that may exist between Henderson’s announcement and self-viability could be the utilization of verbal influence when attempting to address the issues of patients just as rehearsing pressure the executives (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).   This will help decrease certain wellbeing practices and frames of mind that may increment with any ailment, ailment, or condition. Individuals are the patients and families that expected help to accomplish the fourteen fundamental needs. The earth in the hypothesis is the natural, physical, and social parts affecting the prosperity of a patient. Wellbeing is viewed as the freedom of self-care for an individual. Nursing practice is gone for helping the patient in performing exercises that will upgrade recuperation. The scholar makes an accentuation on the significance of advancing wellbeing and avoiding illness in light of the fact that ideal wellbeing isn’t constantly feasible for everybody.

Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory is one that is strongly impactful throughout nursing.  Real ideas of the model are culture, culture care, and culture care contrasts (decent varieties) and similitudes (universals) relating to transcultural human consideration. Other significant ideas are care and minding, emic see (language articulations, recognitions, convictions, and routine with regards to people or gatherings of a specific culture as to specific marvels), etic see (all-inclusive language articulation convictions and practices as to specific wonders that relate to a few societies or gatherings), lay arrangement of medicinal services, proficient arrangement of human services, and socially consistent nursing care.

Nursing in the United States has a cultural impact every day from around the world. Nurses make a vow to think about patients and this is all around clarified in Henderson’s announcement. Henderson’s meaning of nursing is, for the most part, focused on how the medical attendant should meet each patient needs in connection to the fourteen segments (Ahtisham and Jacoline, 2015). Attendants will be at the bedside of patients, being far-reaching and seeing every minute that they experience, just as their relatives. Medical attendants will talk up when they are not ready to, and attendants will loan them a hand when they don’t have one. Medical attendants will attempt to keep up their self-viability and wellbeing conduct at a larger amount (Ahtisham and Jacoline, 2015). It is clear how the medical caretaker completes her undertakings to help the customer in gathering his or her needs. These requirements might be physical, passionate, social or some other needs. This is accomplished by the medical caretaker by tending to the patient’s capacity to breath typically, eat and drink enough, and dispose of body wastes.

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One concept in Roy’s Adaption Model is that to cope with a problem, a patient will use learned coping mechanisms, which may be social, psychological, or biological, in order to cope with a changing world (Perret, 2016).  For example, a patient that uses drugs does so to help eliminate their mindset from a previous trauma.  This patient is using a learned coping skill to cope with a mental issue. Another concept in this model is that a person’s adaptation is a function of both their adaptation level and the stimulus to which they are exposed (Perret, 2016).  In rehab centers, patients have adopted certain coping skills as a result of their ability to cope with a stressful situation and the drug use that they have been doing.  It is the nurses’ duty to enlighten the patient on other coping skills and showcase healthy behaviors, such as a nutritious diet, exercise, and positive groups (Perret, 2016).

According to Henderson, increasing a patient’s independence diminishes a decline in the patient’s health. The nurse’s role when applying this theory focuses on substitutive, supplementary, and complementary care. Substitutive care is when the nurse is doing for the patient, supplementary is when the nurse is helping out the patient, and complementary care is when the nurse is working with the patient with the goal of getting the patient back to a level of independence. Application of Henderson’s theory to nursing follow, therefore, involved that nurses perform to help patients in playacting activities of daily living.  This side particularly refers to those patients World Health Organization are disabled and have limitations in their ability for self-efficacy.

This writer’s perception of Roy’s theory is that it’s a good vary of applications within the nursing field.  She is in a position to use this daily in her observe. for example, addiction affects the physical mode of a patient by resulting in dependence and withdrawal.  This can, in turn, have an effect on the self-concept mode associated with that behavior.  The patient feels guilt and shame as a result.  Addiction additionally affects the role perform mode in this the patient loses their ability to effectively do their life roles as kid, parent, or worker.  Lastly, addiction may be a family un-wellness, poignant the reciprocity mode.  By that specialize in effective management of withdrawal and fascinating the patient in individual, group, and group psychotherapy, nurses are able to bring harmony to all or any these modes and move the patient forward on the health time (Perret, 2016).

In this writer’s current observe, Henderson’s theory is enforced through the utilization of home health for nursing, physiotherapy, and physiatrist till the patient will perform activities of daily living with very little or no help (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).  As a nurse, one ought to be able to place himself or herself within the patients’ shoes.  The nurse has to work by the aspect of the patient and be willing to fastidiously hear the patient’s requirements and preoccupations (Nicely & DeLario, 2014).  The nurse UN agency is that the member of the work team who spends the foremost time on the aspect of the patient is liable for yielding with the orders of the doctors, however the individual attention nurses provide to patients should be within the very best approach supported information, skills and needs to realize patient recovery.  Also, the implementation ought to be supported physiological principles, age, cultural background, emotional balance, and physical and intellectual talents (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).

Orem’s SCDNT is complicated. It consists of 3 nested theories, several presuppositions, and propositions in every of the individual theories. Revisions of the idea from the first model have improved the organization; but, its quality has augmented in response to social wants throughout the many editions. Roy’s Adaptation Model describes folks as being a part of a holistic adaptive system in constant interaction with internal and external environments.  Henderson’s Self-Efficacy Theory has overviewed the thought of self-efficacy as vital to influencing health activity amendment.

For a nurse in any space of care, the tasks of serving to patients to adapt to wherever they’re on the health-illness time are vital.  Roy’s Adaptation Model is a good conjectural framework to deal with multiple problems in nursing observe, similarly as facilitate the method of adaptation to the ever-changing health standing in patients with chronic diseases.  Roy’s Adaptation Model focuses on however the individual responds to the stimuli or forces from the external setting.  Roy additionally mentions the inner world and private values inside her model to demonstrate however adaptation is integrated with health.  Roy’s Adaptation Model theory offers the conjectural framework applied to all or any levels of nursing observe addressing ever-changing health standing.  Henderson’s thought of self-efficacy is sureness and also the conviction of having the ability to succeed in any goal that non-public functions. once a nurse is self-efficacious, one can continually give higher health care to patients, can have a more robust relationship of skilled respect towards colleagues and alternative team members, and, therefore, bigger success in business life.  The nurse will bridge the gap between Henderson’s postulates and self-efficacy by unendingly seeking skilled advancement, rising skills and information, and providing the most effective care to patients.


  • Ahtisham, Y. & Jacoline, S. (2015). Integrating nursing theory and process into practice; Virginia’s Henderson need theory. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(2), 443-450.
  • McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2014). Theoretical basis for nursing (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Nicely, B., & DeLario, G. T. (2014). Virginia Henderson’s principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in Transplantation, 21(1), 72-77.
  • Perret, S. E. (2016). Review of Roy adaptation model-based quantitative research. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 349-356. doi.org/10.1177/0894318407306538


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Diversity is defined as the ‘individual differences of the human race’ which should be ‘accepted, respected, embraced and celebrated by society’. The differences encompass many factors such age, religion, ethnicity and sexual orientation, all which shape an individual to be unique.

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