The chosen theory for this paper is Madeleine Leininger’s Culture Care Diversity and Universality care theory. This theory focuses on the fact that different cultures have different caring behavior and different health or illness values, belief, and pattern of behavior (Rubyks, 2008). It involves the understanding of different cultures when it comes to nursing and health-illness caring practices, with the goal to provide efficient nursing care services to people according to their cultural values, belief and illness (Wayne, 2014).
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This theory is based in the assumptions that different cultures perceive, know, and practice care in different ways, yet there are some commonalities about care among all cultures of the world (“Madeleine M. Leininger,” n.d.) Leininger also point out that while human care is universal across cultures, caring may be demonstrated through diverse expressions, actions, patterns, lifestyles, and meanings (“Madeleine M. Leininger,” n.d). The theory is also based on the assumption that nursing care will be socially compatible or useful just when the client is known by the nurse and the clients’ examples, expressions, and social qualities are utilized in appropriate and meaningful ways by the nurse with the clients (“Madeleine M. Leininger,” n.d.) .
The most significant concepts of the theory include, health (which is the state of well that is culturally defined and constituted), environment (which includes events with meanings and interpretations given to them physical, ecological, sociopolitical, and/or cultural settings.) and nursing (a learned, humanistic profession that focuses in human phenomena to maintain or regain their health or wellbeing in a culturally meaningful and beneficial ways.) (George, 2010b, pp. 408-409). Leiniger is adamant that the concept of person is not culturally appropriate in many cultures she defines person concept as human beings (George, 2010c, pp. 412). Madeleine developed the Sunrise Model in a logical order to demonstrate the interrelationships of the concepts in her theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Wayne, 2014b) The model is a conceptual visual guide depicting multiple factors predicted to influence culturally congruent care with people of different cultures. The model essentially serves as a cognitive guide for the researcher to visualize and reflect on different factors predicted to influence culturally based care in the discovery process (207, 1995) . The Sunrise Model has additionally been utilized as a profitable guide for doing cultural-logical medicinal services appraisal of customers’ wellbeing needs. As the analyst utilizes the model, the diverse elements portrayed in the model are kept in mind in relation to discovering culture care phenomena.
Origins of the Theory
The inspiration of the theory comes from all her experiences and exposure in the field. World War II influence tremendously in the theory development. During this period immigration from diverse cultures were moving to the United States. As she interacted with clients of multiple ethnicities, with different health conditions, she became conscious that healing from diseases as well as keeping up wellbeing and prosperity was extraordinarily influenced by how medicinal services was given to them (207, 1995) .
The turning point happened in the early 1950’s. Madeleine cared for children of multicultural backgrounds. During her service, she convinces herself that nurses failed to appreciate the important role of culture in healing, and caring process. The current methods didn’t addressed her clients’ needs. She then understated that clients respond to treatment varies from societies and that was a basic need that justified further review and research.
She then decided to start an academic doctoral program in anthropology to have more knowledge of different cultures and ethnicities .This why is also say that Leininger’s theory is derived from the disciplines of anthropology and nursing (Leininger & McFarland, 2002b) She faced many obstacle during the conceptualization of uniting culture and care together, basically because of absence of studies to back her up and absence of enthusiasm from medical caretakers and other wellbeing specialists. However, the need turned out to be increasingly obvious as she went ahead with her review and at the appropriate time, following five decades study and research, the theory has been set up as a noteworthy, significant and prevailing theory in nursing (207, 1995) .
The theory is significantly useful in the field of nursing. Is useful in a way that emphasizes the cultural difference in nursing practice. I guide the nurses to have a very understanding in practice when exposed to different cultural backgrounds. This no also facilitate the work of the nurses, but it also beneficial to the client as his/her medical and personal need are addressed.
Leininger’s theory helps to better define the expectations of the nurse patient relationship because ultimately the nurse is the one who implements care and is at the patient’s side for most his or her time receiving care (Betancourt, A, & Leininger, 2016). Leininger’s goal is for nurses to inundate themselves in social training and to execute a style of care parallel to what the patient esteems appropriate as per his or her social desires. Doing so is a component of a nurse’s plan of care using the nursing process. The nurse arrangements interventions that are socially consistent with the patient’s needs and assesses the outcome, judging whether the patient’s social needs are completely addressed. This theory has change caregivers previously less informed of patient cultural diversity and upgraded perceptions that could conceivably be the distinction between a patient’s healing and decrease (Betancourt, A, & Leininger, 2016). A specific example where this theory could be applied is in a multicultural community like Miami Dade. Many hospital in that community like Jackson Memorial Hospital uses Lenningers as a foundational and theoretical framework for nursing practice (Services (JMH), 2017).
In this multicultural world, nurses provide care to several patients with diverse backgrounds, values belief, and culture. Leininger’s theory can be tested and used on every patient the nurse encounter as well as use it as a framework for research. I had personally experimented with this theory and will continue to do so as it very effective. There have many different studies and research that have emanated from this theory. One of the resent one was Use of the Culture Care Theory to Discover Nursing Faculty Care Expressions, Patterns, and Practices Related to Teaching Culture Care (Mixer, S. (2011). The goal was to discover that new nursing students could provide culturally congruent and competent care. It also validates the testability of the theory in practice. As expected the results from this research were satisfactory. The culture care theory with the sunrise enabler provided a useful framework for this study. This research has further validated that culture care theory had contributed to aggrandize knowledge for the discipline of nursing. Findings from this study have contributed to the practice of nursing and nursing education (Mixer, S. (2011).
This theory is comprehensive, broad, holistic in its approach. A major strength of Leiniger’s theory is the recognition of the importance of culture and its influence in everything that involves nursing care as well the guidance that The Sunrise Enable has provide to collect data (George, 2010, p. 423). Some limitations include the limited of new graduate nurse that are prepared to conduct research need it to provide cultural effective care. There is also the need for research funds to support continue study of caring practices (George, 2010a, p. 423). I personally have use and will continue to use Madeleine Leininger theory. It has help me tremendously as a student and as a novice nurse. It is not only helpful as a guide to practice, but also it respects each person cultures, values and belief and that is something that we all want whether we are healthy or suffering from an illness.
207, U. N. (1995, November ). LEININGER’S THEORY OF CULTURE CARE. Retrieved January 13, 2017, from http://nursingtheories.blogspot.com/2011/07/leiningers-theory-of-culture-care.html
Betancourt, D. B. A., A, D., & Leininger, M. (2016). The downtown review Madeleine Leininger and the transcultural theory of nursing recommended citation. The Downtown Review. Iss, 2(1), . Retrieved from http://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=tdr
George, J. B. (2010). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (6th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
Leininger M. (1991) Culture care diversity and universality: A theory of. New York: National League for Nursing Pres; 1991.
Leininger, M., & McFarland, M. R. (2002b). Transcultural nursing: Curricular concepts, principles, and teaching and learning activities for the 21st century. In M. Leininger & M. R. McFarland (Eds.), Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, research, & practice (3rd ed., pp. 527-561). New York: McGraw-Hill
Madeleine M. Leininger. Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/madeleine-m-leininger.html
Mixer, S. (2011). Use of the culture care theory to discover nursing faculty care expressions, patterns, and practices related to teaching culture care. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(1), 3-14. doi:10.9730/ojccnh.org/v1n1a1
Rubyks. (2008, June 19). Nursing theory and theorists. [Madeleine Lininger’s Theory of Transcultural Nursing]. Retrieved January 11, 2017, from http://nursingcrib.com/news-blog/nursing-theory-theorists/
Services (JMH), M.-D. C. O. (2017). Nursing practice models. Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://www.jacksonhealth.org/nursing-practice-models.asp
Wayne, G. (2014a, August 26). Madeleine Leininger – transcultural nursing theory. Retrieved January 12, 2017, from Theorists & Theories, https://nurseslabs.com/madeleine-leininger-transcultural-nursing-theory/#description
Wayne, G. (2014b, August 25). Madeleine Leininger – biography and works. Retrieved January 13, 2017, from Theorists & Theories-interrelationships of the concepts, https://nurseslabs.com/madeleine-leininger/#transcultural-nursing-theory
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