Obesity as a factor of infertility in women’s of childbearing age. Obesity is the define by the World Health Organizations (2019), as” an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to Health.” Obesity affects approximately half the general population and is a reoccurring problem among women of childbearing age. Obesity is one of the main factor associated to Infertility, leading to complications, such as an irregular menstrual cycle, polycystic ovary syndromes and endometrial pathology That is devastating effect on the women reproductive health. According to The Department of Health and Human Services (2019), “Infertility is not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying (or six months if a woman is 35 or older) And woman who can get pregnant but unable to stay pregnant may also be infertile.”
Irregular Menstrual Cycles
Irregular menstrual cycles are common among obese women. It’s resulted from the excessive change in a women’s body weight. The American Pregnancy associations, (2015) defined Menstrual as the “discharge of blood and tissue from the lining of your uterus.” It is a normal function of the body is controlled by hormones’ estrogen and progesterone, that send a chemical signal to begin the cycle. These hormones are found in the Pituitary glands, and if it has a slight changed in levels in the blood stream, it will interrupt the reproductive cycle.
Women suffering from an irregular Menstrual cycle may have miss two or three cycles, they can be accompanied with cramps and excruciating pain, and heavy or light bleeding. Some woman experienced vomiting, headache and acne. The cycle time may also vary. Customarily weight gain.
Treatment for symptoms are sometimes not necessary, unless they create other related problems. Some treatments used to regulate the cycle are medications, which at times are contraceptive pills which lessen the symptoms by regulating the cycle. Hormone therapy is another method used, by which a hormone medication progestin is given. The most significant process is losing the weight, which has a significant outcome and correcting effect.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
This is a hormone disorder is also a result of imbalance hormone in the pituitary gland where it affects the hypothalamic ovarian system, the ovulation process relies on the follicle-stimulating and Luteinizing hormone to carry out the normal ovulation functions This disrupts the complex function of the ovaries to release egg in the fallopian tube for fertilization, which then cause infertility.
Irregular menstrual bleeding also a symptom of polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Excessive weight gain increases the adipose tissue, which is good for women’s health at regular level, but having excess amount caused an adverse effect. Increase in testosterone level, which increase facial hair growth, also on the arm and legs and the resistance of insulin. Production of immature eggs, poor follicle growth resulting in smaller than normal follicle
The most significant procedure is a weight loss program; the use of hormone enhance medication help to improve the ovulation process. Proper diet management. Surgery to also correct scared tissue due to ovarian cysts procedures done in the past. Birth control pills are also used to regulate the hormone to correct the irregular menstrual bleeding, Metformin is also prescribed at times to help regulate the insulin level.
Endometrial Pathology is also factor of obesity. It is known as the tissue that lines the uterus and thicken when preparing for conception, if there was no fertilization during that process. It would then break down and release during menstrual cycle. These tissue can grow excessively into polyps or thicken and cause endometrial hyperplasia which can result in cancer if not monitored and treated properly. They increased the leptin on the granulosa which leads to infertility.
Endometrial Pathology caused excessive bleeding during menstrual cycle, there severe pelvic pains associated which is event during intercourse and sensitivity. Damage as a result of inflammation. Growth of tissue outside the uterine cavity area.
Regular screening to check for abnormal growth, a proper maintain nutritional diet, so as to work on weight reduction. The use of hormone medication to aid in hormone imbalance.
Obesity has an adversely effect on Infertility. It has shown to be the major factor of infertility in women’s of childbearing age, leading to complications such as Irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovary syndromes and endometrial pathology that are devastating effect on women’s reproductive health. Obesity affects the hormone that carryout the daily function of the reproductive system. This leads to hormone imbalance disorder that disrupts the reproductive system and diminish the fertile health of women. Research has shown that these complications can be reduce through treatment, and they all have been effective. The most significant outcome was weight reduction, which showed immediate results in balancing the hormone.
- Infertility (2019). Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://womenshealth.gov.
- Slivestris, E.D. Pergola, G. Rosania, R., Loverro, R. (2018). Gynecological Association,16(2),111-117 Obesity as a disruptor of female fertility.
- Soberay, G. (2014). Ridgeview Medical Center. Infertility and hormonal imbalance Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology,16 (22).
- Obesity (2019) .World Health Organization Retrieved from http://wwwwho.int
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (2017). PCOS Awareness Association. Retrieved from https://www.pcosaa.org Menstruation,
- American Pregnancy Association, (2015). Retrieved from https://americanpregnancy.ory/womens.health
- Zepnep, O.D. (2015). Impact of obesity on infertility in women Journal of the Turkish-German
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