The study is conducted to evaluate the knowledge regarding lifestyle modification among patients with diabetes mellitus. The discussion in this chapter is based on the findings obtained from the statistical analysis and interpretations in the previous chapter. Paired ‘t’ test is used to test the significant difference between the pre test and post test, chi-square test is used to find out the association between the knowledge with selected demographic variables.
1.To assess the knowledge on lifestyle modifications among patients with diabetes mellitus.
The knowledge on lifestyle modification among diabetes patients is assessed by using a structured questionnaire with various aspects from the sample size 30.
Table (2) denotes that in the pre test level of knowledge concerning general information regarding diabetes mellitus, 8(26.7%) of them had below 50% and 22(73.3%) of them had between 51-75%. With regard to dietary management for diabetes 19 (63.3%) of them had below 50%, 10(33.3%) of them had between 51-75% and 1(3.3%) of them had above 75%. With regard to exercise and other management for diabetes, 13(43.3%) had below 50%, 14(46.7%) of them had between 51-75% and 3(10%) of them had above 75%. With regard to complications and prevention, 20(66.7%) of them had below 50%, 9(20%) of them had between 51-75% and 1(3.3%) of them had above 75%.
Table (3) shows that the mean value of knowledge in pre test score is low. It reveals that the knowledge on lifestyle modification among diabetes patients is inadequate. Based on these findings it is clear that there was a definite need for education on lifestyle modification.
These findings are supported by the study conducted by Saikumar, et. al., in 2005 .The survey method was implemented among 1000 patients with diabetes mellitus. Data was collected by 20-point questionnaire to identify awareness regarding diabetic eye complications and to receive the opinion to improve the awareness regarding eye complications of diabetes. The findings of the study revealed 84% of the diabetic patients had awareness regarding eye complications of diabetes. However their knowledge score was low. Around 46.9% of the diabetic patients had awareness that poor control of diabetes lead to diabetic retinopathy. Nearly 40.3% of the diabetic patients had awareness that long duration of diabetes mellitus resulted to diabetic retinopathy. So, the diabetic educational programme are essential to improve the awareness regarding eye complications of diabetes.
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2.To reassess the knowledge on lifestyle modifications among patients with diabetes mellitus.
Table(2) shows the distribution of knowledge among diabetes patients regarding lifestyle modification. The results shows that the post test knowledge scores of the diabetic patients has improved on various aspects of lifestyle modification like general information, dietary management, exercise and other management, complications of diabetes and prevention.
To evaluate the structured teaching programme the pre test and post test values are compared. Table (3) shows that,
The pre test mean in level of knowledge regarding general information regarding diabetes is 5.87 and the standard deviation is 1.74 and in the post test the mean is 9.7 and the standard deviation is1.71. The paired ‘t’ test value is 13.34.
The pre test mean in level of knowledge regarding dietary management for diabetes is 5 and the standard deviation is 1.7 and in the post test the mean is 8.8 and the standard deviation is 1. The paired ‘t’ test value is 12.35.
The pre test mean in level of knowledge regarding exercise and other management for diabetes was 7.03 and the standard deviation is 1.8 and in the post test the mean is 10.7 and the standard deviation is 1.07. The paired ‘t’ test value is 8.21.
The pre test mean in level of knowledge regarding complications and prevention regarding diabetes is 2.9 and the standard deviation is 1.37 and in the post test the mean is 5.77 and the standard deviation was 0.94. The paired ‘t’ test value is 9.57.
The post test scores are greater than the pre test scores among patients with diabetes mellitus. The calculated value of ‘t’ at 5% level is greater than the tabulated value of ‘t’. This shows that the structured teaching programme was effective.
Thus, in the present Study, in all the components, there is an effective increase in the post test knowledge score of the participants with significant improvement of knowledge in each component indicating that the Structured Teaching Programme is effective in imparting the knowledge level. The findings of the study is supported by the study conducted by Michael Vallis, et.al, in 2005.The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of diabetes education on lifestyle modification. The results revealed that there was a positive improvement in treatment regimen and dietary management through education regarding self-management among patients with diabetes.
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The present study is supported by another similar study conducted by Carry M. Randerr, et.al, in 2001. The study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme by the health care personnel. The purpose of the study was to improve the process of care for diabetic patients. The findings of the study revealed that the structured teaching was very effective in improving process of care and patient outcomes.
3.To Associate the level of knowledge on lifestyle modifications with selected demographic variables.
Table (5) predicts the association between the level of knowledge on lifestyle modification with selected demographic variables like education, occupation, source of information, duration of illness and family history of diabetes. Association is found by using chi-square test. The results reveal that variables like education, source of information, duration of illness and family history of diabetes are significantly associated with knowledge score at 5% level of significance. There is no association between the occupation and the level of knowledge on lifestyle modification.
The present study is supported by Ramachandran (2002), stated that Asian Indians have strong familial aggregation of diabetes. An analysis of family history in the type II diabetes, in India showed that 54% of the patients had a parent with known diabetes mellitus and in additional 22.8% sibling had diabetes mellitus.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among offspring with one diabetic parent was 36% which increased to 54% with positive family history of diabetes mellitus on the non diabetic parent side also.
The present study has been supported by a series of other studies, which confirmed that the structured teaching programme on lifestyle modification among diabetes patients is effective. The findings of the study revealed that structured teaching programme helped in gaining knowledge on lifestyle modification and thereby prevents the complications of diabetes mellitus. From the analysis and results, it is concluded that the structured teaching programme was effective.
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