Data Collection, Analysis, Evaluation, Dissemination of Results and Conclusion
There are two types of research methods that can be used for an Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project, qualitative and quantitative. A quantitative research method is used when the researcher prefers to have numerical data as the basis of making an analysis which can be statistical. A qualitative research method is used when the experiences of the person or subject are used to make a generalized statement about an existence of a phenomenon. In qualitative research, data can be collected through a questionnaire, or survey and then the results can be represented in the form of a diagram or a graph. A qualitative research is done in a natural setting, without much control and comprises of observation of the subject in its natural setting (Cristancho, Goldszmidt, Lingard, & Watling, 2018). The type of research method being used for the study depends on the phenomenon and the type of results a researcher is looking to find and share.
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The PICOT question for my Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project: In adults who smoke, how can smoking cessation education increase compliance to smoking cessation and reduce readmission in 30 days after discharge? Smoking cessation education and its implementation plays a very huge and an important role in the understanding of the consequences and risks associated with smoking and also increasing awareness and compliance with smoking cessation in adults who smoke. Smoking cessation education can help improve the overall health and also improve the lifestyle and provide better management of other comorbidities associated with smoking. Tobacco use still remains the most preventable cause of death all across the world. Smoking has been the most preventable leading cause of death across the world. Smoking causes at an average of 7 million deaths per year (Engelke & Schub 2017). Smoking cessation education can help improve the health outcomes for patients who smoke and also prevent further complication associated with smoking.
Data collection is an approach to how the information is acquired and gathered in order to measure or analyze the statistics in order to be able to make sense of the problem and to develop and a plan which can improve the current practice or phenomenon. Accurate data collection is very important for any study, if the data collection and its authenticity is questioned then that can also create doubts about the credibility of the research and the study. One must be very careful with how that data is gathered as it effects the viability and the credibility of the study in regards to patient care. Data can be acquired or collected in a number of ways, which can include surveys, randomized studies, interviews, etc. For my EBP project and implementation, a combination of both qualitative and a quantitative research approach will be used. In this study proposal, data will be collected numerically as well as subjectively to appropriately determine the relationship between smoking cessation education and its compliance.
In this research, the information and data will primarily be collected through a closed-ended questionnaire. The list of the questions to be developed will contain all the patients from primary care clinics in two different locations. The list will also help in narrowing the list of patients down to patients who smoke and those who have received smoking cessation education on their visit. 100 patients will randomly be selected for the research. The group of individuals selected will be asked a series of question. The questions will be as follows:
- Do they currently smoke or are a former smoker?
- How much to they smoke a day?
- What is their physical activity on a daily basis?
- Are they trying to quit smoking?
- Have they received smoking cessation education in the past?
The responses to the questions will be simplified and also sorted out to make sure that there is no confusion in the variables being testes and also the results or responses to the answers will be put in a graphical form to display the statistics. One of the biggest barriers to smoking cessation is the understanding of the implications and the motivation for smoking cessation compliance which also depends on the quality of smoking cessation education provided and the resources. There will also be face to face interviews conducted with these participants to collect data to be analyzed and then make improvements in smoking cessation education. A good selection of measurement of a data will produce higher quality data (Polit, & Beck, 2017).
In this study the participants will describe their feelings and barriers regarding the compliance to smoking cessation. From such an approach we will be able to gather descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics help analyze, describe, and present data. Such statistics also help researchers to interpret data and are the summary of the sample. Central tendency is one of the most commonly used descriptive studies, which includes mean, median, and mode (Conner, & Johnson, 2017). Inferential data is another type of statistical data that can be collected. Inferential statistics help researchers in being able to determine whether the probability of a difference occurred in the sample groups was a coincidence or dependable (Halfens, & Meijers, 2017). Another characteristic of a descriptive study is the measure of dispersion. The measure of dispersion is divided into the range, standard deviation, and variance. The difference between the maximum value and minimum value is known as the range. For the sake of this project, if the participants answered no to smoking, then that will be the maximum range, and if some participants picked yes to smoking, then that will be the minimum range. Standard deviation is a measure derived from the square root of the variance (Yurtoglu, 2018). In this evidence-based project, the descriptive statistics methods will be used because of the quantitative approach. The central tendency method will be used to divide the data. The mean, median and the mode will also be used along with the central tendency to create and graph. This graph will be used to visually display and conclude the analysis from the study.
Inferential statistics should also be considered and used in any evidence-based project because some of the answers related to a population can be derived through these statistics. For example: in this research the inferential statistics would include the population who are predisposed to the comorbidities from smoking due to second-hand smoke etc. One of the types of inferences that can be used would be analysis of variance. Another statistic that is important is the analysis of the variance. Analysis of variance is a type of inferential statistic that can be used to compare or contrast means from a sample, and can be used to measure the variability in the mean of every group (Plonsky, & Oswald, 2017).
The goal of the interviews in the evidence-based project will be to implement and applying the analysis to a general population with the certainty and assumption that the sample size selected will be enough to reach a conclusion and to propose a change in current practice. The concluded analysis is an important part of research which must be applied to the broader population and should not be limited only to the population that was being studied.
The stakeholders in this project are, the patients, the nursing staff, and the providers. The implementation of proper smoking cessation education can help yield a higher quality of care, and compliance with smoking cessation, and in return can decrease the rate of readmission 30 days after discharge. The nursing staff can also gain a lot of confidence in knowing that the quality of the education provided by them in regards to the implementation of smoking cessation can have a positive impact on the overall health of the patients and reduce comorbidities secondary to smoking. This will also increase the positive outcomes associated with smoking cessation and increase its compliance.
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The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) method can be used to evaluate change. The PDSA worksheet comprises of the following: Plan: writing down what is to be tested: Smoking cessation compliance. The outcome will be the result of the process which will show if patients are more compliant with smoking cessation when they receive the proper education compared to those who have not received smoking cessation education. The questionnaires will be used on admission and the re-evaluation will be done at the time of discharge or a follow up visit. The results will be used to document the impact of smoking cessation education and the successful compliance of patients with smoking cessation. The main changes that this research can potentially bring to practice would be understanding and identification of the barriers associated unsuccessful smoking cessation compliance, and also the improvement in the quality of education being provided by nurses to ensure higher rates of compliance and a reduction in the number of readmission rates and increase in positive outcomes. Science in nursing has influence many changes in practice which have been a result of evidence-based practice and research (Mohsen, Safaan, and Okby, 2016).
Dissemination of Results
In order to achieve or influence change into a practice, research is very important and plays an important role. If there is no research available showing that certain results can be achieved from evidence-based practice then, it is harder for clinician to be able to implement a new change in their practice, and show its importance and relevance to the current practice. For better evaluation, the results should be reviewed by other researchers independently. Dissemination of the results of evidence-based practice leads to change in current practice and improvement in patient care. The improvement in positive outcomes can also save a lot of healthcare dollars and reduce the cost of healthcare. Information should be shared and presented effectively, have data which will show the significance of the data in the clinical practice area, and how a facility can adopt and implement the change into practice (Coleman, Rosenbeck, & Roman, 2013).
The evidence gathered through this EBP should be shared with local hospitals, clinics, and also with healthcare providers in helping them being able to increase compliance with smoking cessation. The information should also be shared with management at the clinic or hospital, and with coworkers and colleagues by the use of presentations, seminars, in-service workshops, distribution of handouts, flyers, brochures at the healthcare facilities. If the results are very substantial then they can also be share with the local or national nursing association or the CDC so the implementation can be supported and further research can be conducted on a wider scale. The EBP can also be published in medical and nursing journals to gather more support and create awareness amongst the healthcare profession and community.
This EBP emphasizes the need for importance on the identification of the barriers associated with smoking cessation compliance, and also how the quality of education regarding smoking cessation provided by nurses can be further improved by understanding the factors that promote compliance to smoking cessation and factors which hinder smoking cessation compliance in patients who have received smoking cessation education. The use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods such as the PDSA method can help put more perspective and planning in the implementation of practices which can improve outcomes. Nurses are at the forefront of healthcare, and as a future Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP), it will be very important for me to understand and know the importance of smoking cessation and its compliance to reduce complication and readmission rates. With proper implementation of quality education, better positive outcomes can be achieved in regards to smoking cessation and its compliance.
- Conner, B., & Johnson, E. (2017). Descriptive statistics: Use these tools to analyze data vital to practice-improvement projects. American Nurse Today, 12(11), 52-55.
- Cristancho, S. M., Goldszmidt, M., Lingard, L., & Watling, C. (2018). Qualitative research essentials for medical education. Singapore Medical Journal, 59(12), 622–627. https://doi-org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.11622/smedj.2018093
- Engelke, Z. R. M., & Schub, T. B. (2017). Patient Education: Teaching the Patient about Smoking Cessation. CINAHL Nursing Guide. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nup&AN=T705769&site=eds-live&scope=site
- Halfens, R., & Meijers, J. (2013). Back to basics: an introduction to statistics. Journal Of Wound Care, 22(5), 248-251.
- Mohsen, M. M., Safaan, N. A., & Okby, O. M. (2016). Nurses’ perceptions and barriers for adoption of evidence-based practice in primary care: Bridging the gap, 4(2), 25-33. http://dx.doi.org/doi: 10.12691/ajnr-4-2-1
- Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2017). Multiple regressions as a flexible alternative to ANOVA in L2 research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(3), 579–592. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1152565&site=eds-live&scope=site
- Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2017). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.
- Coleman, E. A., Rosenbek, S. A., & Roman, S. P. (2013). Disseminating evidence-based care into practice. Population Health Management, 16(4), 227-234. doi:10.1089/pop.2012.0069
- Yurtoğlu, N. (2018). Understanding the process of statistical methods for effective data analysis. History Studies International Journal of History,10(7), 241-264. doi:10.9737/hist.2018.658
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