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Effects of HIV and AIDS in Children and Adolescents

Info: 4081 words (16 pages) Nursing Literature Review
Published: 11th May 2021

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The purpose of this paper is to provide researched information on the multifaceted effects of adolescents living with HIV and Aids A lot of people talk more about HIV and AIDS in adults than children. At the end of 2015, 2.6 million children throughout the world among the ages of 15 and younger were living with HIV.  This paper will discuss some of the most recent issues plaguing this demographic and new research, treatment options, and leading efforts to impact the stigma around them.

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Unfortunately, one-third of them were getting treatment. Most of these cases have been spotted in sub-Saharan Africa. It is the leading cause of death among teens. Diagnosis of the virus comes with having a weak immune system. Therefore, people with the virus cannot fight infections and some cancers very well.

Many children who have HIV, contracted it through their mother. Either during the birthing process, or though breastfeeding. Women who get tested positive, and stick to the treatment given by physicians, lower the chances of passing on the virus to the babies. Children can also get infected through sexual abuse or rape. In some countries, child marriages are culturally accepted. Young girls could get HIV from their older husbands if he is infected and could be pass it on to their babies. The younger the child is when they first have sex, the higher the risk of them contracting HIV. There is also the issue of children or adolescents, who are sexually active and are not using protection. Adolescents do not always know how to use a barrier method, or they may use them incorrectly. Not using a barrier method such as, birth control or condoms can raise the risk.

Article Review #1 - Status of HIV epidemic control among adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 years in seven African countries

  In 2016, an expected 1.5 million females matured 15–24 years were living with human immunodeficiency infection (HIV) contamination in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the pervasiveness of HIV disease among pre-adult young ladies and young ladies (3.4%) is more than double that for guys in a similar age go (1.6%). Progress was evaluated toward the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 focuses for juvenile young ladies and young ladies in sub-Saharan Africa. About 90% of those with HIV disease mindful of their status, 90% of the HIV-infected people mindful of their status on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and 90% of those on treatment virally stifled. Utilizing information from late Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) reviews in seven nations. The national commonness of HIV contamination in pre-adult young ladies and young ladies matured 15–24 years, the rate who knew about their status, and among those people who knew, the rate who had accomplished viral concealment were determined. The objective for viral concealment among all people with HIV disease is 73%, which was the result of 90% x 90% x 90%. Among every one of the seven nations, the predominance of HIV contamination among juvenile young ladies and young ladies was 3.6%; among those right now, announced monitoring their HIV-positive status, and 45.0% were virally smothered. Continued endeavors by national HIV and general wellbeing projects to analyze HIV contamination in immature young ladies and young ladies as ahead of schedule as conceivable to guarantee fast inception of ART should help accomplish plague control among pre-adult young ladies and young ladies. The number of inhabitants in youthful people matured 15–24 years in Africa is the quickest developing youth segment bunch universally. By 2055, the present population of 226 million youths and youthful people is relied upon to twofold. A quick and significant decrease in HIV rate right now basic to accomplish scourge control by 2030. The PHIA overviews give the primary population level evaluations of viral burden concealment for juvenile young ladies and young ladies in the seven nations reviewed. Although it is empowering that among juvenile young ladies and young ladies who knew that they were HIV-positive, 86% detailed that they were getting ART and 82% of those had accomplished viral concealment, more stays to be finished. Not exactly half (46.3%) of HIV-positive pre-adult young ladies and young ladies knew about their HIV-positive status, which is simply over most of the way to the 90% UNAIDS target, and dependent on revealed current utilization of ART, inclusion at the populace level among pre-adult young ladies and young ladies with analyzed HIV disease extended from 78% to 90%. In Lesotho, Uganda, and Tanzania, self-detailed ART use among pre-adult young ladies and young ladies mindful of their HIV-positive status is moving toward the 90% objective. Despite the fact that the pace of viral burden concealment (45.0%) among all HIV-constructive youthful young ladies and young ladies was well underneath the UNAIDS 73% objective, the high pace of viral burden concealment among HIV-constructive immature young ladies and young ladies who revealed current ART use (82%) is especially promising, proposing that once these people get a determination, national ART programs are fruitful in starting and keeping up them on successful ART. - Progress There has been striking advancement toward generally speaking HIV pandemic control in nations right now, reported by PHIA overview results (2015–2016) from Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, which found that 62.0% of all HIV-positive grown-ups matured 15–59 years were virally stifled. In Swaziland, the pervasiveness of viral burden concealment among HIV-positive grown-ups matured 18–49 years dramatically increased from 34.8% in 2011 to 71.3% in 2017, and a 44% decrease in HIV rate was seen over a similar period. Rather than these achievements in the general grown-up populace, the 45% predominance for viral burden concealment among pre-adult young ladies and young ladies is well underneath the 73% objective, proposing the methodologies that have been all the more comprehensively fruitful in starting and keeping grown-ups with HIV on ART are less effective right now. Indeed, even as huge advancement has been made toward accomplishing the 90/90/90 focuses in these nations, extra, directed systems are expected to arrive at certain gatherings, especially pre-adult young ladies and young ladies.

Article Review #2 - Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV

Emotional well-being issue, including mental disarranges, general mental misery, enthusiastic, and social issues, are a main source of health‐related incapacity, influencing 10–20% of youngsters overall, and are prescient of psychological wellness issue and different morbidities in adulthood. Most investigations of emotional well-being difficulties among teenagers living with HIV in low‐ and middle‐income nations are cross‐sectional and do exclude examination gatherings; notwithstanding, they do demonstrate the need to address psychological wellness inside consideration frameworks tending to HIV or essential consideration. In an investigation of 162 HIV‐infected youngsters and teenagers in Kenya, 49% were accounted for to have in any event one mental analysis or suicidality, with uneasiness issue generally normal (32.3%), trailed by significant burdensome issue (17.8%). A cross‐sectional investigation of 562 HIV‐infected young people from Malawi found a downturn predominance of 18.9%. Inside another investigation in Rwanda inspecting 100 HIV‐infected kids ages 7–14 years, the pervasiveness of sorrow announced was 25%. A cross‐sectional investigation of 82 HIV‐infected young people ages 10–18‐years old in Kampala, Uganda found that 51.2% had scores showing huge mental trouble, 17.1% had endeavored suicide in the previous year, 19.5% had ever endeavored suicide, and 30.5% had encountered crazy side effects in the past. HIV‐related shame is a key issue that impacts teenagers living with HIV across country‐income settings by influencing personal satisfaction, medicinal services access, and wellbeing results. Disgrace and separation experienced by HIV‐infected youth through the more extensive network, just as in clinical experiences, are noteworthy hindrances to HIV treatment, frequently prompting negative results and unexpected frailty results. Moreover, HIV‐related disgrace is frequently entwined with different wellsprings of shame, incorporating those related with psychological wellness and additionally substance use issue. Research that explores these effects upon general wellbeing can control the advancement of administration conveyance and arrangement of ideal social insurance proper for the asset setting. Such mediations to battle obstructions because of shame are particularly important for young people changing their clinical consideration to grown-up care settings, as the weight and exchange of physical, passionate, and social stressors during this powerless, formative period increment.

Article #3 - A call to improve HIV testing and linkage to treatment

Regardless of the holes in proof, the significance of improving HIV testing and linkage to mind has been perceived by the worldwide wellbeing network. For instance, a WHO esteems and inclinations study uncovered that key obstructions to HIV testing and advising included unpleasant administrations and young people's interests about classification. Thusly, WHO discharged its 'Direction for HIV Testing and Counseling and Care for ALHIV' and a reciprocal online device (http://apps.who.int/juvenile/hiv-testing-treatment/) to manage nations as they alter existing projects and grow new ones. A key arrangement boundary that numerous nations must deliver to improve access and inclusion is young people's capacity to give lawful educated agree to HIV administrations, including testing and care. This AIDS supplement was dispatched with the objective of giving new proof and bits of knowledge to program organizers, specialists, strategy producers, and financing organizations who are trying to improve or create HIV testing, conclusion, linkage to mind and treatment projects, approaches, and systems for young people and youth. Seven of the nine articles center around Sub-Saharan Africa, mirroring the landmass' weight of the worldwide HIV pandemic; two articles feature difficulties in the United States tending to juvenile key populaces, who have explicit hindrances to getting to administrations. Together, these investigations not just distinguish key holes in access and worthiness of administrations yet feature a scope of promising automatic reactions. With an emphasis on in danger young people getting to HIV benefits, the Metropolitan Atlanta people group pre-adult quick testing activity study by Camacho-Gonzalez et al. distinguished an intercession that gave scene-based testing, persuasive talking and case the executives to teenagers and youth. Wilson et al. feature that young people esteem parental figure backing and constructive communications with human services laborers, and that they want settling on self-ruling choices in regard to HIV finding and exposure. Denison et al. detail the procedure and significance of drawing in youth in projects and research intended to address their issues.

Article #4 - Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care for adolescents living with HIV from 10 districts in Uganda

Foundation - Young people have increased expanded consideration since they are the main age bunch where HIV related mortality is going up. We set out to portray the level and factors related with adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) just as the 1-year maintenance in care among young people in 10 delegate areas in Uganda. Also, we investigated the obstructions and facilitators of adherence to ART among teenagers. Techniques -The examination included 30 wellbeing offices from 10 agent locale in Uganda. We utilized both subjective and quantitative information assortment strategies in joined structure. The previous included Focus bunch conversations with young people living with HIV, Key witness interviews with different partners and top to bottom meetings with teenagers. The quantitative included utilizing review records survey to separate the last recorded adherence level from all young people who were dynamic in HIV care. Components related with adherence were removed from the ART cards. For the 1-year maintenance in care, we looked through the emergency clinic records of all young people in the 30 offices who had begun ART 1 year before the examination to discover what number of were still in care. Out of 1824 teenagers who were active on ART, 90 % had less than 95 % adherence recorded on their ART record at their last center visit. Just area in rustic wellbeing offices was autonomously connected with poor adherence to ART. Of the 156 teenagers who began ART, were yet dynamic in care 1 year later. Shame, separation and divulgence issues were the most exceptional of all obstructions to adherence. Different obstructions included destitution, weakness, symptoms, pill trouble, discouragement among others. Facilitators of adherence for the most part included companion bolster gatherings, directing, steady social insurance laborers, short holding up time and arrangement of nourishment and transport. End - Adherence to ART was acceptable among young people. Being in country territories was related with poor adherence to ART and 1-year maintenance in care was awesome among teenagers who were recently begun on ART. Shame and divulgence issues keep on being the fundamental boundaries to adherence among young people. Inspecting system - To choose 10 locales out of 112 areas in Uganda, one region was purposively chosen from each sub district. These sub districts included in the regions of Arua, Gulu, Serere, Mbale, and others. Of the 10 areas, 30 % were arbitrarily chosen from locale which recorded great administrations (levels of Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis over 80 %, a half year CD4 access of 80 % and linkage to think about ALHIV of 70 %). Another 30 % were chosen from those without the great administrations and the rest were regions with novel circumstances as indicated by the pattern quantitative pre-adult study by the Uganda Ministry of Health (MOH) [30]. In each region, just wellbeing offices offering ART administrations for young people were chosen. Of these, one must be an emergency clinic, one a Health Center (HC) IV and a HC III with the goal that diverse office levels were secured. Because of coordination, it was foreordained that we study just 30 wellbeing offices. We purposively chose 10 medical clinics of which 5 were Regional Referral Hospitals. To make 10 HC III and 10 HC IVs, we purposively chose one HC III and HC IV, from every one of the 10 locale. By stratified testing, choice of offices was made in an approach to catch the individuals who had great administrations for ALHIV as indicated by the pattern quantitative review as prior portrayed, and the individuals who don't. The choice was additionally made so that open and private, different usage accomplices were included with the goal that we show signs of improvement comprehension of the different settings.

Article #5 - Transitioning HIV-infected adolescents to adult care at 14 clinics across the United States

HCT-centered research essentially addresses singular level issues, yet auxiliary obstructions might be progressively basic to fruitful HCT as they decide factors identified with protection qualification, transportation get to, and even young people's ability to go to mind (e.g., HIV-related shame). Discontinuity across clinical frameworks is especially significant for young people without help to arrange commitment over various consideration systems (Mugavero, Norton and Saag, 2011). The American Academy of Pediatrics (2013) as of late accentuated the requirement for HCT-related protocols (AAP, 2014), and this paper diagrams HCT-related obstructions and members' potential answers for help advise coordinated assistance conveyance, direct proper assets, and address needs at juvenile and grown-up facilities. Questioners utilized a semi-organized meeting manual for address themes including progress procedures and conventions; HCT facilitators, hindrances, and arrangements; and between center connections. Aides were educated by HIV care linkage and commitment and HCT for other interminable ailments inquire about. Members got $25 Amazon gift vouchers for their time. Institutional Review Boards at the University of North Carolina Greensboro and taking an interest ATN destinations affirmed the examination. All interviewees gave verbal assent and all information were put away on secret word ensured PCs or in a bolted stockpiling bureau. Information were breaking down utilizing the consistent relative method (Buetow, 2010; Glaser and Strauss, 1967) to look at how suppliers portrayed HCT, with center around HCT facilitators and boundaries. Colleagues freely read and physically coded every transcript to make a codebook. Topical codes dependent on existing writing were in this way added to guarantee that hypothesis based and emanant ideas were incorporated. This codebook was explored and altered by other group members (MacQueen, McLellan, and Kay, 1998). Codes were outlined and refined inside an information table (Glaser and Strauss, 1967), and consolidated into a grid to think about centers' depictions of HCT forms. The coders freely applied the concluded codes to all transcripts utilizing Atlas.ti rendition 7 with 90% between rater understanding. Coders at that point scanned transcripts and field notes for negative cases with respect to boundaries and arrangements related subjects, altering the coding grid varying, and came back to the transcripts for extra correlations (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Coding differences were settled through accord of the whole research group.

Article #6 - Opportunities for action and impact to address HIV and AIDS in adolescents

Frequently, the absence of clearness around what makes up a powerful HIV program for teenagers and how to actualize compelling intercessions so they can be open to young people turns into a significant hindrance to tending to the difficulties featured all through this article. The articles right now to give answers to these inquiries and further clearness on the best way to address these difficulties. Among these, a methodical survey by Mavedzenge et al takes note of that various intercessions structured principally for grown-ups have top notch proof showing their potential viability in lessening HIV transmission, dreariness, and mortality. The survey prescribes that these intercessions be organized in juvenile HIV programming. The audit additionally affirms the viability of in-school intercessions and some focused-on mediations in geologically characterized networks at changing announced high-chance practices identified with HIV. In view of this audit, the creators suggest that projects organize the development of chances for young people to get to HIV testing and guiding, just as mediations demonstrated to diminish HIV transmission, AIDS-related dismalness and mortality. These incorporate condoms, arrangement of antiretroviral drugs for the avoidance of mother-to-kid transmission of HIV, antiretroviral treatment, arrangement of clean infusing gear to individuals who infuse medications, and deliberate clinical male circumcision in high HIV commonness and low circumcision pervasiveness settings.

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The audit takes note of the proof of potential adequacy for oral pre-introduction prophylaxis among hetero couples and men who have intercourse with men, and conduct change intercessions among individuals who infuse medications and men who have intercourse with men, and suggests that these 2 mediations be scaled up in teenagers. The survey additionally takes note of the significance of basic hindrances, for example, laws, approaches, standards and perspectives, neediness and pay disparity, which influence the conveyance and take-up of these successful HIV-explicit intercessions. This orderly survey didn't yield any indisputable proof on how viable intercessions can be conveyed to teenagers to yield ideal effect on HIV results. To address this hole in information, a few extra articles were authorized to report the experience and exercises gained from the scale up and usage of key mediations arriving at young people. The surveys present exercises from encounters in the presentation and scale up of willful clinical male circumcision,13 prophylactic services,14 human papilloma infection vaccination,15 and sexual and close accomplice savagery prevention. They feature various significant program components to control successful usage for young people: 1. Agreement on clear national focuses for youths matured 10–19 years to control arranging and observing of progress. 2. Government commitment and authority in execution. 3. Strengthening frameworks and limit, including both assistance conveyance and coordination including numerous divisions, to guarantee effective scale up, proficiency, and maintainability. 4. A clear and steady strategy and rules system, engaging on-screen characters with the power to address usage needs for teenagers and to empower suppliers to all the more likely location the exceptional needs of this more youthful populace. 5. Bundling of the mediation with other wellbeing and social advancement intercessions applicable to the network and the teenagers to boost sway. 6. The significance of anticipating request creation and administration conveyance, improving stages (especially schools), and network moves toward that offer the best open door for wide and supported reach of youths. 7. Strengthening information for promotion, dynamic, and program improvement, including suitable age disaggregated observing and assessment and research including young people matured 10–19 years. 8. Engagement of network structures and youthful informal communities to help powerful assembly and manufacture new, even more tolerating standards around the intercessions and results of intrigue.


  • Brown, K. (2018). Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15–24 Years — Seven African Countries, 2015–2017. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report67. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6701a6
  • Vreeman, R. C., McCoy, B. M., & Lee, S. (2017). Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society20, 21497.
  •  Wong, V. J., Murray, K. R., Phelps, B. R., Vermund, S. H., & McCarraher, D. R. (2017). Adolescents, young people, and the 90–90–90 goals: a call to improve HIV testing and linkage to treatment. AIDS (London, England)31(Suppl 3), S191.
  • Nabukeera-Barungi, N., Elyanu, P., Asire, B., Katureebe, C., Lukabwe, I., Namusoke, E., ... & Tumwesigye, N. (2015). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care for adolescents living with HIV from 10 districts in Uganda. BMC infectious diseases15(1), 520.
  • Philbin, M. M., Tanner, A. E., Chambers, B. D., Ma, A., Ware, S., Lee, S., Fortenberry, J. D., & The Adolescent Trials Network (2017). Transitioning HIV-infected adolescents to adult care at 14 clinics across the United States: using adolescent and adult providers' insights to create multi-level solutions to address transition barriers. AIDS care29(10), 1227–1234. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2017.1338655
  • Kasedde, S., Kapogiannis, B. G., McClure, C., & Luo, C. (2014). Executive summary: opportunities for action and impact to address HIV and AIDS in adolescents. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes66, S139-S143.


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AIDS is a human disease in which there is gradual failure of the body’s defence (immune) system thereby leading to severe and fatal opportunistic infections and cancers.

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