Coffea arabica Report
This report investigated Coffea arabica and its potential applications on human health. A series of scientific studies confirm that this plant does have extensive medicinal applications. However, there are conflicting results, such as its potential to both ameliorate and stimulate cancer growth. Caffeine was found to decrease progression of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Thus, it is recommended that further research should be conducted in the domain of neurodegenerative attenuation.
Coffea arabica contains numerous components that have salubrious applications on humans (Romualdo et al. 2019). Of these components, caffeine has the most potential in ameliorating these diseases (Prasanthi et al. 2010). This report aims to disseminate the contrasting and conflicting effects of C. arabica’s components on human health, especially in the realm of neurodegenerative diseases (Pelligrino, Xu and Vetri, cited in You et al. 2011; Popat et al., cited in Mellick & Ross 2011).
Materials & Methods
Using RMIT library search and Elsevier online database, literature on the plant Coffea arabica were evaluated and compiled into a review. This review contrasted the benefits and deficits, the unknowns, and the societal applications of said plant. Following this, further literature was synthesised into tables focusing on the neurological effects of C. arabica. As well as an infographic showcasing its applications on Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. These tables and the infographic were produced for the purpose of an informative PowerPoint presentation.
Fig. 1. Process of data collection for C. arabica
Fig. 2. The Societal and Neurological Impact of Caffeine on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
(Made using Piktochart)
Table 1. Activity of compounds found in coffee
|Cafestol||Cytotoxic to leukaemia cells||Lima et al. 2017|
|Kahweol||Induces apoptosis in breast-cancer cells||Oh et al. 2018|
|Trigonelline||Stimulates breast-cancer growth||Allred et al., cited in Arthur, Kirsh & Rohan 2018|
Table 2. Neurological effects of caffeine
|Increase in midbrain-periaqueductal activation||Smith et al. 2012|
|Increase in self-rated anxiety||Rogers et al. 2008|
|Low dose therapy may attenuate anxiety||Cakir et al. 2017|
|Increase in motivation and energy||Ullrich et al. 2015|
|Antibacterial activity||Almeida et al. 2012|
|Reduces risk of Alzheimer’s||Dall’Igna et al. 2007|
Fig. 1 highlights the process and methodology of data collection. When the keywords “coffea arabica”, along with “coffee”, were entered into RMIT Library online search, 3,167,908 results were generated. Thus, search was refined to sources from peer-reviewed journals, published within the past fifteen years. Such a refinement generated a reduced 31,221 results. The keyword “health” was then added to search, which reduced the results to 6,926. The majority of useful literature was found to be hosted on Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database. Records were refined to focus on the individual constituents of C. arabica, and then refined to Caffeine. After disseminating the literature, a trend was observed between Caffeine and neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, data collection was focused on Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
Fig. 2 details the socioeconomic impact of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. According to the findings, the incorporation of caffeine into treatment may lead to beneficial prognoses for those whom suffer from the diseases (Prasanthi et al. 2010; Laurent et al., cited in Stefanello et al. 2019; Dragicevic et al. 2012; Bandookwala et al. 2019). Statistics and studies selected for the figure were gathered from those pertinent to the United States, as that was where most of the literature was conducted.
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Table 1 showcases the known effects of three major compounds found in coffee, Cafestol, Kahweol, and Trigonelline, and their functions on cancer cell growth (Lima et al. 2017; Oh et al. 2018; Allred et al., cited in Arthur, Kirsh & Rohan 2018). These compounds are not found to play a role in neurological defence.
Table 2 displays the neurological effects of caffeine. It is known to increase anxiety (Rogers et al. 2008; Smith et al. 2012). However, caffeine has the potential to decrease levels of anxiety (Cakir et al. 2017). It may increase motivation and perceived energy levels (Ullrich et al. 2015). Antibacterial activity was also seen when bacteria were exposed to caffeine (Almeida et al. 2012). Lastly, caffeine may reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (Dall’Igna et al. 2007).
C. arabica and Cancer
Cafestol, Kahweol, and Trigonelline were studied for their potential effect on health. When Cafestol was co-administered with cytarabine, an antileukemic pharmaceutical, cytotoxic activity against leukaemia was observed to increase, compared to treatment with either compound alone (Lima et al. 2017). Kahweol has potential application in treating breast-cancer, as it reduces gene expression that may lead to the development of said cancer (Oh et al. 2018). This anti-carcinogenic behaviour boasts promising medical applications for C. arabica. However, it also contains the constituent Trigonelline, which may stimulate growth of breast-cancer cells, due, possibly, to its being an oestrogenic compound (Allred et al., cited in Arthur, Kirsh & Rohan 2018).
Caffeine and Anxiety
Caffeine is known to increase self-rated levels of anxiety (Rogers et al. 2008). This is supported, via fMRI screenings, which show increased neural activation of the midbrain-periaqueductal region, which is known to be the area of the brain responsible for anxiety (Smith et al. 2012). This behaviour may be seen as deleterious to human health. However, when administered in a low-dose, caffeine potentially attenuates levels of anxiety (Cakir et al. 2017). It was also may lead to an increase in perceived energy and motivation levels in humans (Ullrich et al. 2015).
According to Almeida et al. (2012), coffee extracts, as well as isolated caffeine, show anti-bacterial activity. However, at levels found in coffee, the effect was only temporary. Higher doses were required to inhibit the bacterium for longer-lasting periods. Although, as seen in the first paragraph, Trigonelline may stimulate growth of breast-cancer cells, it was also observed to provide the same anti-bacterial effect as caffeine.
An estimated 5.8 million Americans are afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease, and this figure is predicted to grow to 13.8 million by the mid-century (Alzheimer’s Association 2019). This may factor into increased economic pressure, as Alzheimer’s is predicted to cause a $655.05 billion (USD) deficit (Yang & Levey 2015). Although primary care of Alzheimer’s patients is provided by nursing home staff (Tsong et al. 2018), rates of reported depression in patients decrease when cared for by family (Mess et al. 2018).
Parkinson’s disease strains caregivers financially (Martinez-Martin et al. 2018), which may explain the higher incidents of dental caries seen in patients (Sha 2015), as they lack the funds to provide adequate dental care. In those with Parkinson’s disease, significantly higher incidents of anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction are reported (Oniszczenko et al. 2018). This may be explained by these patients being perceived as less intelligent, friendly, and attractive than healthy people (Schwartz & Pell 2017).
Caffeine against Neurodegeneration
This could be absolved via treatment with caffeine (Dall’Igna et al. 2007), as it reduces levels of β-amyloid plaque and oxidative stress, which are indicators of the progression of both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (Prasanthi et al. 2010; Lim et al. 2018), potentially prevents spatial memory defects (Laurent et al., cited in Stefanello et al. 2019) and increases mitochondrial function in the brain, which translates to increased cognitive energy (Dragicevic et al. 2012).
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Concerning Parkinson’s, alone, caffeine has been shown to diminish oxidative damage when co-administered with the pharmaceutical edaravone (Bandookwala et al. 2019). However, when caffeine is taken in conjunction with the nutritional supplement creatine, it is shown to rapidly progress Parkinson’s (Simon et al. 2017), due to gene expression. Showing the genetic complexity of the disease.
A limiting feature of the collated literature is that much of it focuses on animal modelling. Not only are much of these results non-transferrable to humans, the experiments may not be reproducible, due to ethical concerns.
- Almeida, AAP, Naghetini, CC, Santos, VR, Antonio, AG, Farah, A & Gloria, MBA 2012, ‘Influence of natural coffee compounds, coffee extracts and increased levels of caffeine on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans’, Food Research International, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 459-461, viewed 02 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Alzheimer’s Association 2019, ‘2019 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures’, Alzheimer’s & Dementia, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 321-387, viewed 25 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Arthur, R, Kirsh, VA & Rohan TE 2018, ‘Associations of coffee, tea and caffeine intake with risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer among Canadian women’, Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 56, pp. 75-82, viewed 14 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Bandookwala, M, Sahu, AK, Thakkar, D, Sharma, M, Khairnar, A & Sengupta, P 2019, ‘Edaravone-caffeine combination for the effective management of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease in rats: An evidence based affirmative from a comparative analysis of behavior and biomarker expression’, Neuroscience Letters, vol. 711, viewed 27 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Cakir, OK, Ellek, N, Salehin, N, Hamamci, R, Keles, H, Kayali, DG, Akakin, D, Yuksel, M & Ozbeyli, D 2017, ‘Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function’, Physiology & Behavior, vol. 168, pp. 1-10, viewed 22 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Dall’Igna, OP, Fett, P, Gomes, MW, Souza, DO, Cunha, RA, Lara, DR 2007, ‘Caffeine and adenosine A2 receptor antagonists prevent β-amyloid (25–35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice’, Experimental Neurology, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 241-245, viewed 12 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Dragicevic, N, Delic, V, Cao, C, Copes, N, Lin, X, Mamcarz, M, Wang, L, Arendash, GW & Bradshaw, PC 2012, ‘Caffeine increases mitochondrial function and blocks melatonin signaling to mitochondria in Alzheimer’s mice and cells’, Neuropharmacology, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1368-1379, viewed 27 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Lim, EW, Aarsland, D, Ffytche, D, Taddei, RN, Van Wamelen, DJ, Wan, YM, Tan, EK & Ray Chaudhuri, K 2018, ‘Amyloid-β and Parkinson’s disease’, Journal of Neurology, pp. 1-15, viewed 20 September 2018, SpringerLink online database.
- Lima, CS, Spindola, DG, Bechara, A, Garcia, DM, Palmeira-dos-Santos, C, Peixoto-da-Silva, J, Erustes, AG, Michelin, LFG, Pereira, GJS, Smaili, SS, Paredes-Gamero, E, Calgarotto, AK, Oliveira, CR & Bincoletto, C 2017, ‘Cafestol, a diterpene molecule found in coffee, induces leukemia cell death’, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 92, pp. 1045-1054, viewed 24 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Martinez-Martin, P, Macaulay, D, Jalundhwala, YJ, Mu, F, Ohashi, E, Marshall, T & Sail, K 2018, ‘The long-term direct and indirect economic burden among Parkinson’s disease caregivers in the United States’, Movement Disorders, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 236-245, viewed 25 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Mellick, GD & Ross OA 2011, ‘Caffeine and Parkinson’s disease: are we getting our fix on risk-modifying gene-environment interactions?’, European Journal of Neurology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 671-672, viewed 12 September 2019, Wiley Online Library database.
- Mess, E, Witkowicz, M, Ornat, M, Sielski, P & Klaszczyk, T 2018, ‘Evaluation of depression in patients with alzheimer’s disease according to the location of medical care’, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 688-694, viewed 25 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Oh, SH, Hwang, YP, Choi, JH, Jin, SW, Lee, GH, Han, EH, Chung, YH, Chung, YC & Hye, GJ 2018, ‘Kahweol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis by suppressing fatty acid synthase in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells’, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 121, pp. 326-335, viewed 24 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Oniszczenko, W, Bitner-Szulc, J, Szylberg, A, Kuczko-Piekarska, E, Zaborowska, M & Wawrzyniak, S 2018, ‘Mental health and BIS/BAS dimensions in Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis patients and in stroke survivors’, Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 132, pp. 1-5, viewed 25 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Prasanthi, JRP, Dasari, B, Marwarha, G, Larson, T, Chen, X, Geiger, JD & Ghribi, O 2010, ‘Caffeine protects against oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in rabbit hippocampus induced by cholesterol-enriched diet’, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 1212-1220, viewed 26 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Rogers, PJ, Smith, JE, Heatherley, SV & Pleydell-Pearce, CW 2008, ‘Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together’, Psychopharmacology, vol. 195, no. 4, pp. 569-577, viewed 11 September 2019, ProQuest Central database.
- Romualdo, GR, Rocha, AB, Binken, M, Cogliati, B, Moreno, FS, Chaves, MAG & Barbisan, LF 2019, ‘Drinking for protection? Epidemiological and experimental evidence on the beneficial effects of coffee or major coffee compounds against gastrointestinal and liver carcinogenesis’, Food Research International, vol. 123, pp. 567-589, viewed 02 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Schwartz, R & Pell, MD 2017, ‘When emotion and expression diverge: The social costs of Parkinson’s disease’, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 211-230, viewed 25 September 2019, Taylor & Francis Group database.
- Sha, A 2015, ‘Socio-Economic Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Evidence from India’, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 44, no. suppl1, viewed 25 September 2019, Oxford Academic database.
- Simon, DK, Wu, C, Tilley, BC, Lohmann, K, Klein, C, Payami, H, Wills, AM, Aminoff, MJ, Bainbridge, J, Dewey, R, Hauser, RA, Schaake, S, Schneider, JS, Sharma, S, Singer, C, Tanner, CM, Truong, D, Wei, P, Wong, PS & Yang, T 2017, ‘Caffeine, creatine, GRIN2A and Parkinson’s disease progression’, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 375, pp. 355-359, viewed 27 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Smith, JE, Lawrence, AD, Diukova, A, Wise, RG & Rogers, PJ 2012, ‘Storm in a coffee cup: caffeine modifies brain activation to social signals of threat’, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 831-840, viewed 02 September 2019, PubMed Central database.
- Stefanello, N, Spanevello, RM, Passamonti, S, Porciuncula, L, Bonan, CD, Olabiyi, AA, de Rocha, JBT, Assmann, CE, Morsch, VM & Schetinger, MRC 2019, ‘Coffee, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and the purinergic system’, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 123, pp. 298-313, viewed 02 September 2019, SD Elsevier Freedom Collection database.
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- Ullrich, S, de Vries, YC, Kuhn, S, Repantis, D, Dresler, M & Ohla, K 2015, ‘Feeling smart: Effects of caffeine and glucose on cognition, mood, and self-judgment’, Physiology & Behavior, vol. 151, pp. 629-637, viewed 22 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- Yang, Z & Levey A 2015, ‘Gender Differences: A Lifetime Analysis of the Economic Burden of Alzheimer’s Disease’, Women’s Health Issues, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 436-440, viewed 14 September 2019, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.
- You, DC, Kim, YS, Ha, AW, Lee, YN, Kim, SM, Kim, CH, Lee, SH, Choi, D & Lee JM 2011, ‘Possible Health Effects of Caffeinated Coffee Consumption on Alzheimer’s Disease and Cardiovascular Disease’, Toxicological Research, vol. 27, no.1, pp. 7-10, viewed 12 September 2019, PubMed Central database.
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