A science which helps to improve the lifestyle of the people or communities by preventing and damaging various kinds of disease is called public health. It is totally concerned with the protection of good health of the whole population of a country of a territory. Social care is a system which helps to an individual for the improvement of his or her lifestyle. Social care and health care is closely interrelated and integrated in UK. The concept public health play a vital role to the development of health and social care. There are various public and private authority which can provides service and help to face the all communicable and non-communicable disease in UK as well as all over the world. So public health is a great concept and it has a great impact on the human body and mind.
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Task-1A: Explain the role of one international agency, one national agency and one local agency in highlighting levels of disease in the UK within the last ten years.
QHA Trent Accreditation is the one of the best international agency in United Kingdom (UK) which helps to identify the disease and also helps to how can treat these disease.
It provides logistic support to the development of the diagnoses and also helps to the development of the quality to treatment procedure by providing and ensuring appropriate results to the respondent individuals.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is a national body relating with the Department of Health in the United Kingdom (UK). It was established in 1999 and was joined with the Health Development Agency on 1 April 2005. (Wikipedia)
It provides the guidance and advice to use the new and existing medical technologies as well as devices and diagnostics which play vital role to identify the level of disease and also helps to ensure proper treatment.
So, there are various kinds of international, national and local agencies which can helps to highlighting the nature, epidemics and effects of the communicable and non-communicable disease in the UK.
1-B: Explain, with the aid of statistical information, the progress of the prevalence of one named communicable and one named non-communicable disease that have been in the media within the last ten years. Ensure that you include statistics on mortality rate by age and gender, socio-economic status, causes of death, current status and general trends in risk factors and measures of control used by the government for each disease.
Communicable disease is one kind of disease which may be communicated or transferred or transmitted from one person/animal to another person/animal. There are various types of communicable disease as like Ebola, Flu, HIV/AIDS, MRSA etc.
AIDS stays in dangerous position in UK now. The HIV rates is alarmingly increasing over last one decade. In 1983 the HIV diagnosed number was zero and in 2010 this figure is nearby 7000. Major Risk factors: Taking extra sexually transmitted disease (STD), as like herpes, chlamydia, syphilis, or gonorrhea, after consuming alcohol taking sex, if mother is infected before the birth of children.
On the other hand, non-communicable disease is a disease which can be as the non-factitious or non-transferable from one to another. (Wikipedia) Diabetes, Cancers, Choronic Lung Disease etc. are the example of non-communicable disease. Among them the prevalence of diabetes is increasing day by day in UK. From various research we can see that more than 1.45 million people diagnosed diabetes in the UK in 2008 and 2.6 in 2009. Researchers predict that this figure will be more than 4 million by 2025. It is also alarming news that around 400 people are diagnosed diabetes every day.
There are various risk factors. Tobacco use, poor diet, physical activity, alcohol, obesity are the major risk factors for diabetes. Promotion of responsible food labeling, restriction on the junk food advertising, providing fund for the treatment, arranging training programs are the main measureable initiatives taken by the govt. to control diabetes.
1-C: Using relevant statistics, review the strategies that the government has taken to tackle the spread of the disease given in your answer to 1(b) and evaluate the effectiveness of their approaches in handling the incidence of that disease at national and international level.
The policy is based on the Government’s December 2003 ‘Call for Action on HIV/AIDS’. It identifies five key areas where progress needs to be made:
- Additional Capital: Although sponsoring has improved, it is insufficient. Additional capital will be included.
- Political Intervention: Few countries are quiet dying to recognize the risk of AIDS postures to progress. All governments must identify and play their part in dealing with this threats.
- Donor synchronization: The presence of first-hand contributors is affecting difficulties for emergent nations. Donor activities need to be consistent.
- Country wised plan
- Long term investment
In July 2004, the AIDS tackling strategy was launched by the prime minister of UK. The Department for International Development (DFID), Commonwealth office, the department of health and others work together for tackling AIDS. Govt. has allocated at least £1.5 billion over 3 years, up from £270 million in 2002/2003. In 2012, the UK government donated 10.7 percent of all joint aid for HIV. Between 2008 and 2013, DFIDs total spend on AIDS tackling was averaged £300 million in a year. 60% of the DFIDs HIV fund is provided through the Global Fund. In 2014-2016 the funding of UK govt. will be £1 billion for the Global Fund and it will be increased to £500 million annually.
DFID operates in three major areas: Surveillance and Evaluation, Community Initiatives, and Quality Improvement. There are some programs to tackle diabetes internationally. Those are given below:
Thirteen (13) Diabetes Community Coalitions to implement community-based diabetes prevention and control activities, three (3) Diabetes Centers of Excellence to develop and disseminate tools for high quality diabetes primary and specialty care in clinical settings, Four (4) pilot projects for the Governor’s Initiative for Children with Diabetes to address diabetes-related children’s issues in schools and with community groups, Diabetes-related projects at the Prevention Research Center of the University at Albany School of Public Health. Surveys to assess diabetes prevalence, risk factors, and status of diabetes care among hard-to-reach minority communities. Puerto Ricans in New York City and Japanese in Westchester County were surveyed using innovative sampling methods, Collection of data from federally funded Community Health Centers’ Diabetes Collaborative projects, and offering resources, information, and support to them. Collaboration with other programs within the Department of Health with the AIDS Institute on the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP), and diabetes care quality assurance activities with the Office of Medicaid Management and the Office of Managed Care. Adopting the national objectives Interim Evaluation of Taking Action: The UK Government’s strategy for tackling HIV and AIDS in the developing world.
Since 2010, govt. assess some priority area. Those are given below:
- Advance the health status of the people and cut health dissimilarities.
- Guarantee services are safe & viable, available.
- Assimilate prime, municipal and lesser care facilities.
- Assistance adult people to live self-sufficiently.
- Recover children’s health and security.
- Progress mental fitness services and services for people with incapacities.
Debates has a long term implication on the human body. In addition to the signs, diabetes can effect long term injury to our body. The long term injury is commonly mentioned to as diabetic difficulties. Diabetes disturbs our blood pitchers and nerves and so can disturb any part of the human body. Analysis results nominated that, there main two effects of obesity or diabetes on NHS, as like-
Health effects: The special effects of obesity on the number of chronic situations are meaningfully bigger than the effects of current or past. The similar overall picture appears for physical health–related control of life, although here the effects of obesity are similar to thirty, not just twenty, years’ aging. Being heavy is again similar to problem drinking and between current and past smoking, with no statistical differences between these four risk factors.
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Cost Effects: Obesity associates with the increase of the cost. Drinking, smoking and others can affect to the increase of the cost of the people. Diabetes also increase the treatment and survival caring cost which affect the provision of NHS. Healthcare providers’ supposed patient factors as having the largest impact on diabetes care. Assessments of the direct NHS costs of treating weighty and obesity, and related in England have fluctuated from £479.3 million in 19981 to £4.2 billion in 2007. Assessments of the secondary costs from these analyses ranged between £2.6 billion and £15.8 billion.
2-C: discuss the connection between obesity and lifestyle choices and evaluate factors influencing priorities for the future health and care provision at national level.
Fatness or obesity indicates a complex disorder of body involving an amount of overweight. It isn’t only an ornamental worry. It rises ones risk of sicknesses and health difficulties such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. When one’s Body Mass Index (BMI) is 30 or higher then he/she will be affected by the obesity. There are various risk factors of obesity as like Inheritances, Personal life, Idleness, Unhealthy food and eating traditions, Pregnancy, Shortage of sleep, taking frequent tablets etc. on the other hand, lifestyle choice is a choice of an individual’s how he/she want to live and perform, regarding to their outlooks, perceptions, and morals. There are a great connection between them. The occurrence of obesity is maximum depends on the lifestyle of individuals. Generally a good lifestyle defends on some important factors. Healthy eating and regular physical exercise are two of them. If those are being in one’s lifestyle then the possibility of obesity will reduced or totally vanished. So it is true that there are a negative relationship between both of them. This is explained in the following figure-
It has been saw that obese kids obtain inborn and ecological belongings that are associated with them being large. With regard to the latter, lifestyles such as eating practices and physical activity have been focused on. In the present study, the social features which would control their lifestyles were examined as circumstantial variables. So both of them influence the health care provision greatly.
Task-3-A: Highlight and assess the health and well-being priorities for service users with an identified disease in a workplace setting. Discuss changes that would enhance their wellbeing and devise an activity to encourage behavioral changes, implement and evaluate the activity.
Health and well-being is too much necessary for a workplace especially for service users. Maintaining a good physical and mental health is a great responsibility to everyone. For this employee and employer both have to highlight or have to identify the necessity of well-being. If any organization or company want the proper and appropriate performance from employee firstly it have to identify by which it can be the sound health and mind as well as a well-being. For this they can follow some following strategies-
- Can ensure flexible work.
- Successfully ‘mental health’ skilled bosses can be ensured.
- Nurturing consciousness
- Generating an open culture.
- Linking workers in decision making.
- Participating psychological strength and comfort through rules and regulations.
- Presenting pressure hazard managing actions.
If these strategies can be followed then an employee will be consider him/her as a complete human being and will perform well.
Ensuring good health and well-being is a great challenge in this 21st century. And for this economic, cultural, demographic, social even if political changes should be needed. If change is occurred then the result will be come. But behavioral change is most important for this sector. Because without behavioral changes it is not possible to ensure the development of physical and mental health and keeping it up. Happiness at its modest level is may be eventually about personal happiness – emotion and living carefully and healthily. For this reason if the change is occurred then it will be implemented automatically by the worker then evaluated by the performance after change when a reasonable standard must be set.
3-B: Evaluate the impact of a workplace strategies and policies in times of crisis within a health and social care setting in the UK.
In 2011/12, 428,000 people in the UK stated occupational pressure at a level they thought was making them harsh.That’s 40%ofall occupational disease [Health and Safety Executive (HSE)]
Particular burden at work can be inspiring, but after it becomes extreme it can finally lead to occupational pressure. When health and social may pass crisis time then the workplace strategies may positive and they also try to overcome this crisis. Sick leave and working while unwell costs companies, on average, 7.78% of their annually wage bill, reveals the 2014 in Britain’s Healthiest Company Report, the prime study of worker health and happiness in the UK. Using ONS data, this decodes into a projected total cost of lost output to the UK economy of over £58 billion² per year. The report issues a stark warning of a dormant health time bomb, with almost two thirds (62%) of respondents having at least two bad life habits that put them at thoughtful risk of future ill health. The findings highlight the strong link between these existence risk factors, workers’ health and their non-appearance from work, leaving employers finally left to pick up the bill as corrupt staff take more time off sick and under-perform at work.
From above discussion we can say that most of the UK Companies or organizations may sacrifice to the workers or others in the bad time of health and social care and they suggest various formula how can solve it and ensure the progress of their company as well as their nation. So we can say that the strategy or policies of UK companies or organization behave positively to the crisis time of health and social care.
3-C: Compare and contrast changes that could be used to improve the health and well-being of a particular service user group in times of crisis and non-crisis. Critically discuss key influential determinants of change.
Generally the word ‘Crisis’ indicates the damage of planned viewpoint, with societies becoming stunned by what is dead fast and debilitated by the chaos of the situation. Crisis can worsen organizational dysfunction, deeply sharing people within an organization and the organization from its community. But within all that can go immoral, occasionally crisis is the only way to right an association because crisis can present a support point for important modification to a apparently willful set of conditions. There are various types of determinants of changes in the organization such as – Change Negotiator, Defining What should be Changed, The nature of Change to Variety, Persons affected by the Change, Appraisal of the Change. Those determinants play a vital role to the different types of an organization. Sometimes in crisis change is mostly necessary then the organization can evaluate the necessity of the change with the determinants of the change. For this reasons the health and well-being is totally depends on the circumstances of the organization.
At the end we can say that if change is needed in the organization first of all the organization have to identify the change negotiator and trough this they have to identify the nature of change which actually they have to need and if necessary they can bring variety in change then it have to appraise the change.
There is a proverb- Health is wealth. Health is the name of happiness if it is sound. So, carefulness about health is totally unavoidable. There are various kinds of disease all over the world. So, UK also faced various kind of disease. There are main two categories- communicable and non-communicable. From those categories AIDS and Diabetes are sty in the dangerous position in the UK. For this reason they are greatly concern about these two and trying to mitigate and vanish these two. But it is quite difficult. For this reasons they are receiving help from various national, local and international authority to protect this country from this. And they also arranged various policies to face these disease carefully. But it is true that all attempts are continuing with a system is named public health. So, we can say that public health play a vital role to the health and social care of the UK as well the whole world.
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Public health refers to all organised measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life aiming the population as a whole. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases.
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