Health is a one of the main are in any country. Public health and social care is the area which has more government concern. Due to different factors there are many health hazards reported all over the world. These factors need to consider very seriously and within the country health management policies and procedures need to be updated to control some of the issues. The health sector cannot work isolate. They need to have links with the other government entities and private entities to collectively implement procedures and policies. To manage the public health support from the general public is highly essential. There is a proper defined structure in the health sector where all the functionalities are defined and well manage.
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1.1 Role of Different agencies
According to the Greener (2008; p. 45) National Health Service (NHS) is the total body responsible for the implementation of health related activities. The chief governor is the Secretary of state for health. He is responsible all the health related activities in the country. All other departments and governing bodies are coming under secretary. Secretary gives proper guidelines and commands to the other authorities about all the drugs management, new researches, disease management related policies and processes. Under the Secretary Department of Health is coming. Department of Health is responsible for the action plan and implementation of the policies defined and to manage the better health of the public. There are strategic health authorities are there to do the ground work implementation. One category is the primary care trust, which consider the people’s health for the emergency and any necessary assistance. There are community health service, General practitioners, dentists, pharmacists and opticians. Each of them is responsible to play vital role in terms of public health.
The second category is the NHS trust or the secondary care unit. This is the major section of the health service. Which has taken care of hospitals, clinics and other supportive services. As a public health care providers the government funds these and there are few voluntary services organisations who support to manage some of the activities. Hospitals are playing a key role in both prevention and cure. Epidemiological vaccinations are provided from the child’s birth to prevent BCG and thereafter another series of doses to prevent different infections. For the cure also hospitals play a major role in different treatment methods implementation. Due to the change of the lifestyle of the people it is highly increasing the no of people who suffer from diabetes. Diabetic research unit is doing researches and providing guidelines for people how to prevent that kind of diseases as per the findings of Britain (2012: p. 3).
1.2 Statistical data analysis
Due to the Wilson (2006: p. 67) Tuberculosis is one of the alerted infection in European countries. Since it needs 6 months continuous treatment people tent to forget some time to take drugs. Due to his if the normal tuberculosis turn into multi drug resistant tuberculosis it is very difficult to cure from existing medicines. Following statistics show the behaviour, patterns, and trends of tuberculosis.
According to Merril and Timmreck (2006: p. 165) Diabetics are the most dangerous non infected disease. Once a person got diabetic it is critical because with it, high blood pressure, heart attacks and many other related complications may arise. At the UK rate of diabetic is around 5% of the population. This is again an alarming situation where the lifestyle matter a lot.
1.3 Effectiveness of the processes implemented
Price et al. (2004: p. 78) say that health research organisation has already planed new developments and strategies to reduce and prevent tuberculosis from the UK. There are many strategies implemented and following are the key areas identified and the success of some of the areas.
Develop new vaccine – current TB vaccine was developed in 1921. It helps to protect 40,000 children every year. With the high rate of HIV and due to the speed it is spreading there is a requirement of researching for new vaccines.
Develop more effective drugs – Drugs currently using been discovered 40 years ago. Normally it need to treat many moths. Patients who are unable to take the proper drug course may get into drug resistance TB.
Develop better diagnosis – Present method of diagnosis “sputum smear microscopy” is 100 years old technique of identifying a patient and it is time consuming. There is a requirement of researching for a new method to identify a TB patient.
Introduce innovation in TB control – Since the UK TB rate is increasing and no of HIV patients are increasing, it is a requirement to find new methods to control TB.
To prevent and cure diabetics there are some implementations planed. Below are some of the steps to prevent diabetes in the UK due to the Britain ( 2012: p. 23).
- Awareness of the risk of type 2 diabetics
- Support and advice for the people to minimise risk of diabetes
- Educate people who have diabetics to minimise complication
- Educate people to maintain blood glucose level
- Effective care for people who are hospitalised
Above strategies are more forcussing the after effect care. But to prevent any of the disease it is required to educate people from the childhood. Then automatically the lifestyle of the people will change according to the correct health practices. This may be a 20 year project. Since the implementation is taking time this kind of a project need to execute from the government level as findings of HNS Website (2012).
2.1 Current priorities
Due to the Farnan and Enriquez (2012: p. 112) the entire world is now facing a bigger problem, which is HIV. There are 3 main ways where HIV can be infected to another person.
- Sexual transmission
- Transmission through blood
- Mother to child transmission
If these 3 risks can reduce the prevention of HIV is easy. There are some methods which are spelled out to reduce the risk.
- HIV testing
- Condom use
- Family planning
- Sex education
Since there is no proper medication found yet the best practice is to avoid people getting HIV. For this continues training programmes and awareness campaigns need to conduct. School children need to educate about the dangers and the prevention methods. All VOG sergeants need to take blood checkups for the pregnant mothers make sure children are not getting spread. This is the millennium challenge in from of us in this century to control HIV as findings of Ramaiah (2008: p. 62).
2.2 Disease prevalence
Farnan and Enriquez (2012: p. 112) say that no of people and patients who are getting some medical testes does not count exact no of people who has suffered from the same disease. Same time there are many people who are not aware that they have already infected. Therefore the exact no of people needs to calculate using a model, understand the full effect to the society, and get ready for medication.
Most of the diseases public is not aware the actual effect on them. It is necessary to educate them about the effects and synthems of the diastase and soon as feel uncomfortable to meet the GP and get treated. This is the best method of preventing the diseases spreading over the place.
2.3 Impact of Lifestyle
People’s health is depending on their behavioural patterns and lifestyle. This is a proven concept of today for many illnesses. As an example. Type 2 diabetes can be easily managed if the people get used to proper health habits and exercises. With the busy schedules of the people time that they have to spend for health maintenance got reduced. It is the biggest challenge the health sector is having now. The second reason is the dining patterns of people. Most of the people are not taking a balanced dilate. This affects their health in the long term. The next challenge is the people who suppose to come to clinics are not participating those in regular manner. This will break the medication process and for cases like TB can cause serious complications due to this as per findings of Kinger (2005; p. 123).
3.1 Health and wellbeing priorities
According to the Bianchi et al. ( 2005: p. 45) considering the health and well being of people there are several factors combine together to affect the health of individual such as physical factors, sociological , psychological, economic and environmental factors.
In addition to that there are several determinants that affect human health and well being. Mainly they are included;
Physical factors- malfunction of the body parts, hormonal imbalance, immune system and genetic disorders that exist in the human body are physical factors that affect the health of people. It can be high blood pressure, high cholesterol, releasing stress hormone as well as genetic factors.
The psychological factors- These are factors of psychological , behavioural and cultural that involve the physical health and illness of human . Stress is psychological factor and smoking, alcohol, unsafe sexual activities are behavioural factor that affects the health and illness due to Taylor (2012: p. 98).
Environmental factors-The environment where people live and work is an environment and Physical environmental factors also affect the human well being and health such as safe water and environment make healthy place. In addition to that some biological, chemical and physical environment factors also affect the health and well being of human.
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Socioeconomic factors-Education, income, environment are the most important socioeconomic factors that affect the health and well being of human. As an example higher income and social health make better health. Higher education level link with both poor and better well being. And also social factors such as interaction with people, family and friends also important in the facts of Bianchi et al. ( 2005: p. 65).
3.2 Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies
Martin et al. (2010; p. 66) say that strategy is something which are defined by the people sometimes may not have real ground level experience. The policy and the implementation requirements are the factors which need to implement to overcome the issues. However, there can be instances where the ground level implementation is not possible according to the defined guidelines. This may be due to the economical, social, cultural and behavioural patterns of the people. In such situations the policy framework wither not implemented or the implementation will be partial. Then the result will be not according to the predictions. The policy framework needs to define for these areas separately and implementation should carry out accordingly to get the maximum gain.
3.3 Improve health and well being
To improve the health and well being it is important to understand the factors which are causing the route. Sometimes social factors such as poverty cause poor health habits and negligence.
According to Taylor (2012: p. 136) physical factors are high blood pressure, high cholesterol level like things and these can be created due to psychological factors also. In a high work pressure it can create stress as well as increase the blood pressure. Behavioural factors such as eating behaviour can increase the cholesterol levels , sugar levels as well as carbohydrate levels of the body and it will affect the health and well being of the person. In addition to that genetic factors play a part in health and well being by developing certain illness. People need to make aware of such incidents and make necessary arrangements to treat them with priority.
Brannon and Feist (2009: p. 56) say that most of psychological factors indirectly influence on human health such as changing behaviour of human. It affects the eating, sleeping, socializing of human and it also affect the hormonal changes as well as heart functions such as heart rates. It makes physical health problems such as heart attacks. As an example stress is a psychological determinant and it affect the memory and reduce the efficiency of the immune system. It influences the reduction of white blood cells and cause bacterial infections mailing physical illness in the human.
Depression is another psychological factor that affects heart disease. Its impact on h heart and circulatory system function and mark towards attacks also. In addition to the lack of exercise and excessive use of alcohol, drug abuse like poor habit also related to depression. Insomnia is another psychological factor and causes for that are experts, anxiety, depression and stress. This altered thiamine system and rheumatoid, arthritis like infection can suffer due to that. According to that all these affect the health and well being of human as findings per Rice (2008: p 126).
Jones and Creedy (2012: p. 36) say that for the health and well being of human behaviour also influenced. As an example smoking, drinking drug abusing are behaviours that affect the health. There are several health effects of alcohol consumption. It is damaging most of the body parts.
Social economic factors
Due to Glanz et al. (2008 : p. 89) poverty is the most important factor that affects the health and well being of people. There is no enough money to live and it influences the mental stress conditions and it causes the work overload lack of sleep etc. These are the causes of other health diseases such as heart attacks. In addition to that poverty affect the food also. There is no adequate food and due to that can increase the nutritional issues such as malnutrition and other nutrition deficiency diseases. Low income people have no time to prepare a good meal and it also causes nutrition problems. The education level also can less and it also leads to unbalance diet that causes the obesity and other diseases. According to that each and every way it shows that the poverty causes the health and well being of humanity.
According to the Winkelman (2008: p. 910 environments that human life and work is a very important determinant of their health and well being. Climate, culture, religion, workplace are environmental factors that important in overall well being. As an example the environment with polluted air , water will enhance the negative health and clean air and safe water make a positive health effect. As well as these the working environment also affects the health and well being of humanity. If working environment is no good it make stress to the human and destroy their satisfaction due to other workers and conditions of work environment.
According to the Windsor (2000: p. 98) Social factors such as family background, friends, working members also affect on the health and well being of human. It is related to good relationships and make happy and it affects the mental health of human. In addition to that biology and genetics also other health and well being determined. As an example certain diseases and health conditions from a parent can affect their child and also the behaviour of parent can effect to the child such as stress and mental conditions.
Due to the Fisher (2003: p. 95) culture is another factor determine the health and well being because due to some cultural tends also it destroy heath of human. As an example due to some cultures there can be bad feeding habits and believes and it can cause for health and well being of people. Gender is another important factor that affects the health and well being. As and example there can be same diseases in some stages of female than male. And also retention capacity of stress is less in female than the males. This leads to week mental health of female than the male and it is a major determinant.
3.4 Activities need implement to improve health and social care
According to Martin et al. (2010; p. 89) there are certain processor to implement as precautionary actions to control spreading health diseases. It is recommended to start health camps from the school level, where the vaccinations and related health camps can be conducted to maintain the school children health. The next most important set of people is elderly community. According to social security information planned visits need to arrange weekly or monthly to check the health status of these people.
One of the best practice to control diseases coming to the country is to manage it from the border control. Department of health need to work further closely with immigrations to implement the set guidelines to minimise people coming from infected countries or countries.
Health sector controls the entire economy in one angle. Because if the people are not well they may not be able to contribute to the economy. In this assignment health sector organisational hiearcahy identified with the roles of each entity. Some of the infectious and noninfectious diseases analysed with statistical data and key elements of improvements to control procedures and their issues being identified. Country and the world facing the change of HIV. Some of the information and procedures mentioned to control health related issues and practical difficulties. Human related wellbeing factors and the most alarming situations explained and solutions to overcome those issues identified. There are some better implementations required to further increase the health of the public.
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