Osteoarthritis Diagnosis and Care Plan

3412 words (14 pages) Nursing Essay

22nd Oct 2020 Nursing Essay Reference this

Tags: nursing

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Patient Initials: JA Unit/Room DOB: 8/17/1926

Code Status Height/Weight 6’1’’ / 126 lb

Allergies: No allergies

Temp (C/F Site)

Pulse (Site)

Respiration

Pulse Ox (O2 Sat)

Blood Pressure

Pain Scale 1-10

97*F

79

18

 

160/80

8

History of Present Illness including Admission Diagnosis and Relevant Physical Assessment Findings (normal & abnormal)

Relevant Diagnostic Procedures & Surgeries /Results

(include dates, if not found state so)

The patient is suffering from general osteoarthritis, muscle weakness, abnormal of gal, spinal stenosis, chronic pain neck, benign hypertension, Alzheimer, dementia with behavior disturbance, depressive disorder NEC, and myopia.

The main symptom of osteoarthritis is sharp pain, or a burning sensation in the associate muscles and tendons, causing stiffness and loss of ability. OA can cause a crackling noise or crepitus when the affected joint is moved, and the patient may experience muscle spasm and contractions in the tendons. Occasionally, the joints may also be filled with fluid. Humid and cold weather increases the pain in many patients.

OA commonly affects the hands, feet, spine, and the large weight bearing joints, such as the hips and knees, although in theory, any joint in the body can be affected. As OA advances, the affected joints appear larger, are stiff and painful, and usually feel worse, the more they are used throughout the day, thus distinguishing it from rheumatoid arthritis. In smaller joints, such as at the fingers, hard bony enlargements may form, and though they are not necessarily painful, they limit the movement of the fingers significantly. OA at the toes leads to the formation of bunions, rendering them red or swollen. OA is the most common cause of joint effusion, an accumulation of excess fluid in or around the knee joint (Moskowitz, 2007).

Breast surgery: Right

Tonsillectomy

Total abdominal hysterectomy

Past Medical & Surgical History, Pathophysiology of medical diagnoses (with APA citations)

Pertinent Lab tests/ Results (with normal ranges)

with dates and rationales

The patient has a history of dementia, hypertension, alcohol abuse, UTI, insomnia, and urinary incontinence.

Her cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. This condition frequently begins with memory loss or subtle impairments in other cognitive functions. These changes might initially manifest as simple forgetfulness or absentmindedness or as minor problems with language, judgment, or perception. As dementia progresses, memory loss and cognitive impairment extend in scope until the person can no longer remember basic social and survival skills or function independently. Language, spatial or temporal orientation, judgment, perception, and other cognitive capacities decline, and personality changes may occur (Bourgeois & Hickey, 2011).

She suffers from hypertension whose symptoms include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Severe headache
  • Vision problems
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Pounding in the chest, neck, or ears (Izzo & Black, 2003).

Urinary tract infections (UTI) do not always cause signs and symptoms, but they can include:

  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
  • Urine that appears cloudy
  • Urine that appears red, or bright pink colored, which is a sign of blood in the urine
  • Strong-smelling urine
  • Pelvic pain in women (Kilmartin, 2002)

Heart: Normal in size. Elevate of right diaphragm. Motion artifact involve left lung base which obscure distal. No pneumothorax.

1/31/15

Impression: no definite infiltrates or masses although motion artifact degrades the quality of the image especially left lung base. Follow up film as indicated. Elevate right diaphragm

1/27/15

Prealbumin 4

Regular diet

11/17/14

Glucose 79

BUN 22

Creatinine 0.74 RBC 4.82

Phosphate 97 hemoglobin 13.7

SGot 15 MCV 85.3

SGPT 0.5 MCH 28.5

Calcium 8.6 MCHC 33.4

Sodium 140 RDW 13.8

Potassium 3.9 platelet 216

Chloride 105 monocyte 7.9

Co2 28 lymph 28

Protein 5.7 eos 2.5

Albumin 3.5 baso 0.5

Morphology normal

Globumin 2.2

A/G ratio 1.6

GFR value 83

CBC 7.7

WBC 4.82

7/21/14

Compressibility and patency through the deep venous system with augmentation noted. Right foot demonstrates no fracture or evidence of bony destruction. No definite neoplastic progress of right foot is demo

Erikson’s Developmental Stage with Rationale (APA citations)

Socioeconomic/Cultural/Spiritual Orientation

& Psychosocial Considerations

The patient is over 80 years old. Therefore, she fits in the 8th Psychosocial Stage of Integrity vs. Despair. The patient is now a senior citizen. She tends to slow down on productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that she contemplates her accomplishments and is able to develop integrity if she sees herself as leading a successful life.

If she sees her life as unproductive, feel guilt about her past, or feel that she did not accomplish her life goals, she will become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom will enable her to look back on her life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear. (Shaffer, 2008)

The patient lives with her son who takes care of her medical and financial needs. The patient has a decreased cognitive ability and is not able to safely take medication by herself. She experiences a high level of insomnia/sleep deprivation. She also suffers from depression exacerbated by a lack of self-efficacy.

Potential Health Deviations, Predisposing & Related Factors; Interventions to Assess or Prevent Potential Health Deviations “At Risk for…” nursing dx (AT LEAST TWO)

Inter-professional Consults, Discharge Referrals, & Current Orders (include diet, test, and treatments) with Rationale With APA citations

Exercising. Exercise could increase her endurance and strengthen the muscles around her joints, making her joint more stable. She can try walking, but she should stop if she feels new joint pain. New pain that lasts for hours after she has exercised probably means she has overdone it, but does not mean she should stop exercising altogether.

Using hydrotherapy, local heat and cold to manage pain: Both heat and cold can relieve pain in her joints. Heat also relieves stiffness, and cold can relieve muscle spasms and pain.

Applying over-the-counter pain gels/creams. Creams and gels available at drugstores might offer temporary relief from osteoarthritis pain. Some creams numb the pain by generating a hot or cool sensation whereas other creams have medications, such as aspirin-like compounds, that get absorbed into the skin. Pain creams would work best on joints that are close to the surface of her skin, such as knees and fingers.

Using assistive devices. Assistive devices could make it easier for her to go about her day without stressing the painful joints. A cane might take weight off her knees or hips as she walks.

Weight management. Being overweight can increases the stress on her weight-bearing joints, such as her knees and hips. Therefore, the patient should maintain her weight to prevent putting pressure on her joints, which could increase her pain.

1/27/15HPN 4oz TID with meals for supplement

7/20/14 Regular diet

1/26/15 Ice cream at HS

9/16/14 4.1.1 benign hypertension. Amlodipine Besylate 2.5mg PO QD. Hold if BP <110, HR <60

11/27/14 Colace 250 PO QD bowel management

7/20/14 Namenda 5mg PO BID

7/20-7/21/14 Donepezil 10mg PO QHS for Alzheimer. Tylenol 325mg 2tabs Q4H if temp >101

10/18/14-11/2/14- Mylanta 30cc PO QD PRN for indigestion

7/20/14 Effexor 37.5 mg PO QD: depressive, sadness

7/20/14 Monitor antidepressant drug side effects and episode of verbal of sadness. Assess QS for pain 0-10

4/6/15 Left and right inner buttock redness clean with NS, pat dry, Baza cream

7/31/14 RNA ambulation with FWW with QD 6x/week

10/4/14 Half left side rail up

1/31/14 CXR for cough and congestion

7/20/14 May get up on wheelchair as tolerated. Admitted to Parkview hospital for dx Dementia, depression, Alzheimer, hypertension.

11/25/14 Nursing to incorporate ROME during daily ADL care

Psych drug:

Effexor 37.5mg for depression and verbalization sadness.

Outcome: Resident was admitted consent and order for use of med, will observe and monitor behavior

10/31/14

Resident had behavior episode during this quarter will continue to observe and monitor behavior episode.

           

Nursing Diagnosis

(at least 2)

Planning (outcome/goal) Measurable goal during your shift (at least 1 per Nursing diagnosis)

Prioritized Independent and collaborative nursing interventions; include further assessment, intervention and teaching (at least 4 per goal)

Rationale

(use APA citations)

Evaluation

Goal Met, Partially met, or not Met and Explanation

1. Severe pain associated with distention of tissue by the inflammatory process

  • The pain showed reduced or controlled
  • Looks relaxed, can rest, sleep and ability to participate in appropriate activities.
  • Follow the treatment program.
  • Using the skills of relaxation and entertainment activities in a pain control program.
  • Assess pain and note the location and intensity of pain (scale 0-10). Write down the factors that accelerate and signs of non-verbal pain.
  • Give hard mattress and small pillow. Elevate bed when a patient needs to rest or sleep.
  • Help the patient take a comfortable position when sleeping or sitting in a chair. Depth of bed rest as indicated.
  • Help patient to frequently change positions.
  • Help the patient to a warm bath at the time of waking.
  • Help the patient to a warm compress on the sore joints several times a day.
  • Monitor temperature compress.
  • Give a massage. Encourage the use of stress management techniques such as progressive relaxation bio-feedback therapeutic touch, visualization, self-hypnosis guidelines imagination, and breath-control. Engage in activities of entertainment that is suitable for individual situations.
  • Give the drug before activity or exercise that is planned as directed.
  • Assist patients with physical therapy.
  • Rest of systemic, recommended during the acute exacerbation phase of disease and all that is important to retain the power to prevent fatigue.
  • Eliminates pressure on the tissue and increase circulation. Facilitate patient self-care and independence. Proper removal techniques can prevent skin abrasion tear.
  • Increasing the stability (reduce the risk of injury) and necessary joint position and body alignment, reduced contractor.
  • To maximize joint function and maintain mobility.
  • It may be necessary to suppress the acute inflammatory system.
  • Useful in formulating training programs / activities based on individual needs and in identifying the tool (Moskowitz, 2007).

The patient met this outcome. Her worst pain reduced to 6 and her tolerance increased to 5 with less verbal and facial expression.

2. Impaired Physical Mobility associated with skeletal deformities, pain, discomfort, and decreased muscle strength.

  • Maintain a function of position in the absence / restrictions contractures.
  • Maintain or improve strength and function of compensation of the body.
  • Demonstrate techniques or behaviors enabling activities
  • Monitor the level of inflammation / pain in joints
  • Maintain bed rest / sit if necessary
  • Schedule of activities to provide a rest period of continuous and uninterrupted nighttime sleep.
  • Assist patients with range of motion active / passive and resistive exercise and isometric if possible.
  • Slide to maintain an upright position and sitting height, standing, and walking.
  • Provide a safe environment, for example, raise the chair / toilet, use a high grip and tub and toilet, the use of mobility aids / wheelchairs rescue.
  • Collaboration physical therapist / occupational and specialist visional.
  • The level of activity / exercise depends on the development / resolution of the inflammatory process.
  • Systemic Rest is recommended during acute exacerbations, and all phases of the disease is important to prevent exhaustion maintain strength
  • Maintain / improve joint function, muscle strength and general stamina.
  • Eliminates stress on the network and improves circulation. Facilitate patient self-care and independence. Proper removal techniques to prevent tearing skin abrasion.
  • Increase stability (reducing the risk of injury) and maintain the necessary joint position and body alignment, reducing contractor.
  • To maximize joint function and maintain mobility
  • Avoiding injury due to accidents / falls
  • Useful in formulating training programs / activities based on individual needs and identifying tools (Grifka & Ogilvie-Harris, 2012).

The patient met this outcome because she is able to walk without any appliance and her mobility is independent.

MEDICATION LIST

Medications

(with APA citations)

Class/Purpose

Route

Frequency

Mechanism of action /

Onset of action

Common side effects

Nursing considerations specific to this patient

Namenda

NMDA receptor antagonist, 5-HT3 antagonist.

Oral

5mg 2times a day

Namenda reduces the actions of chemicals in the brain that may contribute to the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Diarrhea, dizziness or headache.

 

Donepezil HCL

Parasympathomimetic

Oral

1tab/day at bed time

This medication is an enzyme blocker that works by restoring the balance of natural substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain.

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite/weight loss, dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, trouble sleeping, shakiness (tremor), or muscle cramps

 

Amlodipine

Calcium channel blocker

Oral

2.5mg PO

Amlodipine relaxes (widens) blood vessels and improves blood flow.

Dizziness, lightheadedness, swelling ankles/feet, headaches, or flushing

 

Hydrochlorothiazide

Thiazide diuretic

Oral

12.5 mg 1tab PO QD

Hydrochlorothiazide helps prevent the body from absorbing too much salt, which can cause fluid retention.

Stomach upset, dizziness, or headache

 

Effexor

Antidepressant

Oral

37.5mg 1x a day

Venlafaxine affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression.

Vision changes;

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, changes in appetite or weight, dry mouth, yawning;

dizziness, headache, anxiety, feeling nervous, fast heartbeats, tremors or shaking, insomnia, strange dreams, tired feeling, increased sweating, and decreased sex drive.

 

Bibliography

Bourgeois, M. S., & Hickey, E. (2011). Dementia: From Diagnosis to Management – A Functional Approach. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Grifka, J., & Ogilvie-Harris, D. (2012). Osteoarthritis: Fundamentals and Strategies for Joint-Preserving Treatment. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Izzo, J. L., & Black, H. R. (2003). Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kilmartin, A. (2002). The Patient’s Encyclopaedia of Urinary Tract Infection, Sexual Cystitis and Interstitial Cystitis. Boston: Angela Kilmartin.

Moskowitz, R. W. (2007). Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Medical/Surgical Management. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Shaffer, D. (2008). Social and Personality Development. Boston: Cengage Learning.

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