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Experiment on the Effects of Viagra

Info: 2423 words (10 pages) Nursing Essay
Published: 11th Feb 2020

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When it comes to sexuality, many people find it extremely difficult to discuss about as it can be a very sensitive and awkward topic that results in feelings of embarrassment, shame or inadequacy. Sex is something that is difficult to ignore in our daily lives because it is everywhere not only in our culture but also reflects in magazine, movies, or social media. While males tend to go for genital potency, women usually more involve in deeper emotional and spiritual experiences in sexuality (Vetengodt & Merrick, 2009). Women find sex to be the deepest form of love and connection; therefore, sexual communication involves a degree of risk as they can become vulnerable to judgement, criticism or sometimes rejection. Since male sexual dysfunction (ED) indicates fundamental problems in the couple’s sexual interaction, men always try to find ways to be a “master” in bed to not upset their partners. In order to do so, medical method as using Viagra is usually preferable to increase sexual performance rather than sexual therapy due to its convenience and affordable price. 

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Viagra as known as sildenafil citrate is one of the most widely-known prescription drug names on the U.S market. “The little blue pill” Viagra was also the first phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE) inhibitor approved to treat erectile dysfunction (Anderson, 2019). ED is a very common sexual problem for men and often times it increases with age. It is estimated about 30 million men at the age 40 to 70 in America and 100 million men around the world suffered from ED, stated by pharmacist Anderson L. Moreover, sexual dysfunction is dimensional, and its risk factors includes underlying health issues such as diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic alcohol or drug abuse. Not only certain medical condition like Parkinson’s disease or Peyronie’s disease in which scar tissues build-up in the penis but also mental health issues includes depression or stress can also result in loss of libido and cause ED (Yafi et al., 2016). The inability to achieve and maintain an erect penis for sexual function can lead to performance anxiety, a negative impact on self-esteem and personal relationships, or even clinical depression.

Since the erect penis has always been a symbol of a man’s virility and sexual prowess, Yafi and colleagues (2016) demonstrated that there were two major aspects of the male erection which are reflex erection and psychogenic erection. The reflex erection is achieved by directly touching the penile shaft and is under the control of both the peripheral nerves and the lower parts of the spinal cord. In contrast, the psychogenic erection is achieved by erotic or emotional stimuli and uses the limbic system of the brain. Viagra works in response to sexual stimulation to increase the blood flow to the penis which leading to an erection. When a man is aroused, muscles in the penis relax to allow this greater blood flow. Therefore, Viagra plays an important role as to elevate the level of substance including cyclic guanosine monophosphate that causes tissues to relax and leads to an inflow of blood. Viagra specifically does not result in erection without sexual stimulation.

Viagra usage normally associated with old men at the age of 40 or above and has to be prescribed by a doctor in America. However, a study of Both Rosalijn has examined the non-prescription use of the sexual enhancement drug Viagra by young men in Addis Ababa at the ages of 21 and 35, focused on 21 male and 22 female university. Results conclude that study participants turned to Viagra as a jump-start for sexual debut to impress lovers, and as a “support mechanism” when feeling week or tired. All participants had experiences anxieties about their sexuality before which it later becomes the chief motivation for them turning to Viagra. Young men were also informed that there are many different factors that contribute to a women’s expectations of their sexual performances such as misreading women’s sexual desires, constrictions of masculinity that emphasize sexual prowess, and pornography was also a source from which to learn new techniques as well as being a source of insecurities. By using pornography as a standard of reference, young men concern about their ability to live up to these ideals which they also believe would meet women’s expectation; therefore, it encouraged them to turn to Viagra (Both, 2016). 

Fisher, Reynolds, Ware, and Napper have done another research about Viagra and Methamphetamine use that associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men. The data was collected on 1,839 men from 18 to 29 years old in Long Beach, California and a generalized logit model was constructed to compare between men ever had used both amphetamine and Viagra together or separately with men had never used either of them. Results indicated that men who used both methamphetamine and Viagra showed a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, syphilis, and HIV compared to those who used only one or neither drug. In another study by Kim and Park (2006), when Viagra was first launched in Korea in 1999, there were high expectations for its efficacy and strong concerns regarding its safety and potential for misuse. Therefore, an experiment was launched in order to research changes in perceptions of ED treatment 5 years after the release of Viagra. Participants included 120 physicians, 80 patients with ED who had been treated with Viagra and 40 women who knew that their husbands were being treated with Viagra. Most physicians responded that since the launch of Viagra, discussions on the topic of sex are more acceptable (92%) and the number of patients seeking medical treatment for ED has increased too. In general, one of the most distinct changes in perceptions related to Viagra is the higher level of confidence shown by physicians, patients, and patients’ spouses in the safety of the drug.

Hypotheses:

H1:  There is a significant difference between “partner 1” and “partner 2” libido across low and high dose users of Viagra

HO:  There is no significant difference between “partner 1” and “partner 2” libido across low and high dose users of Viagra

Results:

A one-way Anova was conducted to examine the difference of partner 1 and partner 2 libido according to their level dose user of Viagra. Higher score in participants associated with higher libido and happy relationship. Lower score conversely represents for lower libido and unsatisfied relationship. Participants were classified into two groups: partner 1 (n=30) and partner 2 (n=30). From the results, partner 1 libido was not statistically significantly different, as F value is smaller than critical value (2.416 < 3.35), p < 0.05. However, there is a significant different in partner 2 as F value is greater than critical value (31.97 > 3.35), p < 0.05. Therefore, I reject the null as there is a significant difference between partner 1 and partner 2. From the result, this is consistency with my literature search as higher dose Viagra did improved significantly sexuality outcomes comparing to a lower Viagra dose.

Discussion and Implication:

While it was once assumed that sexual function and virility naturally declined with age, the sexual capacities of the aging body have more recently been aligned to new performative standards, particularly for men. Our analysis shows that partner 1 has the different libido according to different level dose of Viagra compare to partner 2 which is very consistency with my literature search. In a research about improvement in erection hardness and intercourse success with first dose of sildenafil citrate 100mg by Mulhall, Creanga and Stecher, men with ED has been tested the improvement in erection hardness during the final intercourse attempt to using sildenafil (Viagra) 50 mg compared with the subsequent initial attempt after a dose increase to 100mg. Results come out that the improved efficacy with sildenafil 100 mg versus 50 mg, which occurs rapidly, suggests that patients should be encouraged to use 100 mg if they are unable to achieve completely hard and fully rigid erections or SSI with the 50 mg dose. When erectile dysfunction apparently was just a problem to older man, I found some resources mentioned that young men even some who are college-age are also leading the surge in Viagra use. The use of Viagra skyrocketed 312% among men aged 18-45 between 1998 and 2002 and 216% increased among men at 45 to 55 years of age (Kirchheimer, 2004). In younger subjects, organic, psychological and relational conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of ED and all these conditions might be evaluated and treated, whenever necessary.

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However, the high or low dose use of Viagra does not associate with the determination of happy healthy relationship. The most common problem that experts on sexuality and therapist are finding that while men hope to treat their impotence as a simple mechanical issue, women tend to address the emotions related to impotence (Newman, 2011). Many couples are finding that a solution to what they thought was medical problem may uncover myriad other issues in the relationship. A lot of men take Viagra without consulting their partner which causes distrust problem and also the fear with regard to becoming intimate again and about the drug. 

In addition, Viagra has been becoming the victim of Internet fraud due to its rapid success and famous name. According to Pfizer, 80% of the top 22 Internet sites that came up with the search results for the phrase “buy Viagra” were selling counterfeits pills. Therefore, men should be very careful and smart on picking the right “blue pill” on the internet. Patient should visit the doctor or physicians when it comes to ED to be prescribed the right dose and right Viagra, so it does not lead to concerning side effects such as vision problems, cardiovascular disease or dizziness. Besides, one limitation in the on my data run is that the sample size is small so it cannot generalize the whole data. With the small size of sample, there will be higher chance of errors.

Viagra affects more than a man’s erection. It affects the nature of the sexual relationship that he and his partner share; the frequency with which they have sex, the practices that are included in sex and, potentially, communication around sex, and both partners’ perceptions of their own sexuality (Potts, Gavey, Grace, & Vares, 2003). It also potentially introduces concerns for women about how this drug may affect their male partner’s health in adverse ways, and also how their own physical wellbeing may be affected.

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