Comparison of Breast Cancer Treatments

2212 words (9 pages) Nursing Essay

14th May 2020 Nursing Essay Reference this

Tags: cancerbreast cancerimmune system

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Abstract

In this paper we will discussing five different ways to treat Breast Cancer .Breast Cancer is when the cells grow out of control and form a tumor that can be seen by xray for felt like a lump. Treatment depends on the size of the tumor .we will be discussing five different ways to treat breast in all stages .One way is by chemotherapy which kills the cell and prevent them from multiplying .There is also medication that can be used for instance tamoxifen,anatrozoleand arimdex to treat cancer .The next treatment is to remove breast Cancer one is lumpectomy called breast conservation,and partial mastectomy. Most women with breast cancer have some type of surgery as part of their treatment .Another treatment we will discuss is immunotherapy which is used by activating or suppressing the immune system.approximately 15 percent of breast Cancer are triple negative which makes immunotherapy the best option .Another treatment is called hormonal replacement therapy which is is used by blocking or reducing hormone level in the body to stop breast cancer from growing and spreading. option .Another treatment is called hormonal replacement therapy which is is used by blocking or reducing hormone level in the body to stop breast cancer from growing and spreading.

Key words: immune system, hormone, system

In this paper we will discuss the five different methods to treat Breast Cancer .The first we will be discussing is treatment with radiation therapy .The sites of the Breast cancer metastases is an important criteria that there medical doctor uses in the selection for the best therapeutic solution for the treatment of the Breast cancer patient . Radiation therapy improves the survival rate in women and men with node positive breast cancer and received the systemic treatment .It is known that after 8 weeks of breast irradiation has began that one will see a slow healing process . These patients that are eligible will receive a dose of 50 G, calculated by the medical team at a depth equal to two thirds of the distance between the skin overlying the breast and the base of the tangential fields at mid separation. The dose will be given at a rate of 10 G per week and is calculated by the nurses. The treatment used in lumpectomy is commonly followed by a trilateral breast irradiation has a very successful rate in regards to the Cancer returning and it is a 5 year according to medical team .This means that lumpectomy needs to be a combined treatment for better results .The benefit of radiation therapy was related to its ability to decrease the cumulative incidence of all second trilateral breast tumors as compared with that in the group treated only by lumpectomy.”. This reduction Whether radiation therapy benefits patients with stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes remains an area of controversy. .(huanget.el 2004).”was evident for both noninvasive and invasive second cancers. In summary, the treatment of second ipsilateral tumors is lowered by breast irradiation after lumpectomy, combined therapy is more appropriate than lumpectomy alone for women with localized intraductal carcinoma in situ.’

The advances in targeted immunotherapy is the second treatment we will be discussing in this paper. They have led to clinical advances in the treatment in breast Cancer. The future for immunonodoular agent vaccines that will be able to reverse the immunosuppreesion that results from tumors are currently in the developmental stages for now. The future for this treatment is progressing slowly with more awareness of breast Cancer . —–. One important fact about the use of active spicitfic immunotherapy and a combination of passive immunitherapy that targets the her-2 receptor in breast cancer has proven to be effective in removing the cancerous cell in the breast tissue . The therapy always depends on the extent of the cancer cells inside the body .”The immune system eliminates tumors by recognizing tumor antigens processed inside the breast tissue thus eliminating the bad cells from the breast and surrounding tissues”(Ernst,B &Anderson,K 2015)”(( (.The world of medical science has found out that a treatment called adaptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is effective in the treatment of advanced breast cancer in men /women .antibody based immuntherapy is involved in breast breast immuntherapy .It is found that cancer vaccine can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity .What is being used to kill tumor cells are all different forms of antibody ,T cells based immunotherapy uses something called anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) This includes T cell based immunity in vaccines . There are two types T cell transfer immunity T cell transfer immunity and T cell receptor gene . The method that is used by injecting the cancer vaccines into the tumor site . A example is tumor antigen derived peptides DNA,and proteins are injected subcutaneous into the breast that is affected .The T lymphogetes from the primary breast tumor tissue are involved in the adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy .It is also given by autologous administration to the cancer patient in order to cure the disease .There are so many new development in the treatment of cancer and that means hope for the patient and family .

The third type of treatment we will disusing now for breast cancer is medication. Drug delivery systems can in principle provide enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity for patients anticancer agents. Long circulating macro molecular carriers such as lysosomes can exploit the ‘enhanced permeability and retention’ effect for preferential extravasation from tumor vessels”. Liposomal anthracyclines have achieved highly efficient drug encapsulation. What was realized is that the drug propranolo ,which is a beta blocker inhibits breast cancer cell migration that contain nor-epinephrine. We hypothesized that breast cancer patients receiving beta-blockers for hypertension would show reduced metastasis and improved clinical outcome. “ beta-blocker therapy significantly reduces distant metastases, cancer recurrence, and cancer-specific mortality in breast cancer patients suggesting a novel role for beta-blocker therapy “( ).Anti-hypertensive beta-blocker therapy prior to their breast cancer diagnosis would show reduced distant metastasis formation compared to non-hypertensive breast cancer patients or those treated with other anti-hypertensive drugs .This shows that different types of drugs that cure another diseases can also be used to kill cancer cells .Patients receiving beta-blockers showed a significant reduction in formation of distant metastasis .It is increasingly being recognized that stress can promote cancer progression through an indirect effect on the immune system . Moreover, a biological mechanism of action has been proposed for the involvement of catecholamine stress hormones. It has been shown that nor epinephrine can directly stimulate tumor cell migration and this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic receptor .The adrenoceptor antagonists have the potential for retarding breast cancer progression and improving clinical outcome.

The fourth treatment will be discussing is hormone replacement therapy .”BIO active natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles . (Duddukuri et e 2016).’ Development of AA pathway which inhibitory natural products as chemo preventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy (Fisher 2016)”. In fact onion and garlic are used in the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases, including cancer, Moreover, breast cancer risk was reduced in women consuming greater amounts of fiber garlic, and onion .Moreover, breast cancer risk was reduced in women consuming greater amounts of fiber garlic, and onion. The following three things which are inhibiting proliferation,angiosperms and ER -a expression are anti-breast cancer effects,which in turn induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and in turn you can use radioactive therapy and chemotherapy to kill all cancer cells . Patients with cancer and a single metastasis to the brain who receive treatment with surgical resection plus radiotherapy live longer, have fewer recurrences of cancer in the brain, and have a better quality of life than similar patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Many times in Cancer they most use a combination of treatment to kill the cancer cells . The type of surgery is sometime the choice depending on the size and location of the tumor because they are different stages. The long-term survival rate among women who undergo breast-conserving surgery is the same as that among women who undergo radical mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery is therefore the treatment of choice for women with relatively small breast cancers. “ the long-term survival of women with early breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy to the trilateral breast was virtually identical to the rate among women who underwent radical mastectomy.’(Katz. S 2005)”.Modified radical mastectomy or lumpectomy with maxillary node dissection, combined variably with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, is currently the treatment of choice for breast cancer .Combination of conservation surgery and irra- T dilation therapy in the treatment of favorable breast cancer is gaining acceptance as an alternative to mastectomy .This goes to show that a combination of therapy are preferred to fight Breast Cancer.

The fourth treatment that we will discuss is “Heat shock proteins (hsps) are thought to play important roles in the cell cycle and various processes of carcinogenics”. Heat shock therapy plays an important role in the cell cycle. Members of the group work by stabilizing new proteins and assuring that they are correctly folding.they will then go to destroy damage cells in the breast tissue .heat shock proteins are said to work by their molecular weight.they are known to response to stress. The heat shock proteins are said to help by binding to proteins or peptides .It is very important in the treatment against breast cancer .”The increases in HSP thus mediate two of the common hallmarks of cancer and favor cell birth over cell death. In addition, Hsp90 plays a role in facilitating transformation by stabilizing the mutated and over-expressed on co proteins found.”(Calder wood S.k ,2010)”.

In conclusion the treatment for breast Cancer are very effective in lower death rates in both men and women affected with Breast Cancer .The types of treatment we have discussed is Radiation,surgery,medication,chemotherapy. The medical field has made great strides in fighting cancer ..Breast Cancer is when the cells grow out of control and form a tumor that can be seen by xray for felt like a lump. Treatment depends on the size of the tumor .we will be discussing five different ways to treat breast in all stages .One way is by chemotherapy which kills the cell and prevent them from multiplying .There is also medication that can be used for instance tamoxifen,anatomized arimdex to treat cancer .The next treatment is to remove breast Cancer one is lumpectomy called breast conservation,and partial mastectomy. Most women with breast cancer have some type of surgery as part of their treatment .Another treatment we will discuss is immunotherapy which is used by activating or suppressing the immune system.approximately 15 percent of breast Cancer are triple negative which makes immunotherapy the best option .Another treatment is called hormonal replacement therapy which is is used by blocking or reducing hormone level in the body to stop breast cancer from growing and spreading.”

  • Calderwood, S. K. (2010). Heat shock proteins in breast cancer progression–a suitable case for treatment?. International Journal of Hyperthermia26(7), 681-685. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.3109/02656736.2010.490254
  • Ernst, B., & Anderson, K. (2015). Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Breast Cancer. Current Oncology Reports, 17(2), 1-10. Retrieved from https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
  • Huang, E. H., et.el (2004). Postmastectomy radiation improves local-regional control and survival for selected patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy. Journal of Clinical Oncology22(23), 4691-4699. Retrieved from
  • Fisher B.(2001) Treatment of primary breast cancer with chemotherapy and tamoxifen. N Eng/ J Med 1981; Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM1989022332008
  • Lin, C., (2017). Breast cancer oral anti-cancer medication adherence: a systematic review of psychosocial motivators and barriers. Breast cancer research and treatment165(2), 247-260.

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