The study conducted by (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014), entitled Nurse Staffing and the Relationship to Job Satisfaction and retention, will be the object of the article analysis for this assignment. We are going to evaluate the research question of the study, the study design, representativeness, and the result of the data analysis including strengths and weakness of the study.
The problem that has been addressed in the study is if the nurse-patient ratios affect job satisfaction and retention. The research questions for this article are the following: Has the number of patients assigned to the nurse resulted in job satisfaction? Has the actual economic situation influenced nurse decision to stay in the current position? (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014)
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The above research questions contain variables referred as predictors that can be measure. Those predictors are the staffing size of registered nurses, and number of the patients assigned to nurses. For the second research question the predictor is the actual economic situation which includes the numbers of layoffs and/or hiring, and costs-services reduction. The outcome of this study is nurse retention and job satisfaction.
One we have the problem clear, the population of interest identifies, the interventions considered feasible, and the standard and future comparison established we are in the path to find the best evidence (Adams, 2012, p. 73).
Nurse Staffing and the Relationship to Job Satisfaction and retention by (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014) is a quantitative design study. It is valuable for explaining relationship, nursing measurement and quantification that conduct to conclusive results (Peters, 2012, p. 161). The specific design of this study is non-experimental. It describes the relationship between nurse staffing, job satisfaction, and nurse retention in an acute care environment. More specifically this article is a correlational design study because establish relationship among variables or better to say among predictors and outcomes (Peters, 2012, p. 176). The type of predictive correlational designs for this study is model-testing. For this model type it is probable that researchers hypothesize which variables can conduct to better outcomes.
Sample Size and Representativeness
The type of sample for this study is a non-probability sampling method. It is used when the sampling frame cannot be calculated. As a result, the threat of selection bias is increased and is less representative of the selected population (White, 2012, p.257). Among non-probability sampling, this article is a convenience or consecutive type where the participants are recruited as they become available (White, 2012, p.257). There were seventy subjects selected as they become available. The majority were female with ages between thirty three and forty five years old. In addition, data collection last over thirty days. The strategy for choosing the subjects were stablished before the selection. It requires RN licensed, with six months experience at bedside in an acute care institution. The level of education at the time of the collection, age, gender, was also required. In addition was asked if the subjects were employed in a Magnet hospital.
Results of data analysis Procedures
Quantitative method takes in consideration data analysis after the data collection is finished. The study used statistical analysis. The tool was IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 20. For demographic and subscale variable was used descriptive statistics to determine if the predictive variable, that we mention at the beginning of the paper were related to the outcome nurse retention and job satisfaction. The following survey tools NWI-R (Nursing Work Index Revision) and COP (control over practice) subscales, which was taken from the NWI-R, were used to measure job satisfaction. A weak positive relationship between control over practice and nursing staff indicates that there is a relationship between workload and job satisfaction. One more retention variable was analyzed with frequency and percentage to get results about the actual economic situation affecting the decision to keep the current position. A moderately strong negative correlation shows that a nurse will consider leaving their actual position if the dissatisfaction increases. It Level (p) means a statistical parameter of the analysis. It was set at alpha equal to 0.05.
The theme identified was nurse-patient high ratios work-load. It concluded that incrementing responsibilities during the shift put at risk satisfactory patient care, and raise nursing dissatisfaction and turnover. A common strategy mentioned for the participants to retain them in bedside nursing care was improving nursing-ratios. This strategy will decrease the cost of hiring and training new staff nurses, and it will retain experienced nurses. Improving the nurse to patient ratio is highly valuable to increase job satisfaction and retention.
Summary of the Strengths and weakness
The study major strengths were in data collection. The method of collection corresponds directly with the research question. It contains a variety of age groups and level of experience of the participants. An additional strength of the study is the use of control over practice subscale (COP) as an important survey mechanism to measure job determine the levels of job satisfaction and its impact on the nurse environment (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014).
The main weakness in the study was a sample size with only seventy participants as they become available during a thirty days period. For this reason is complicated to determine the generalizability of this research to the larger population (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014).
The study demonstrates that exist relationship between predictors and outcomes. This relationship does not show relevant threats in bias, history, maturation, testing or instrumentation. We are confident that the study has a relevant internal validity.
On the other hand, it is not possible to conclude that the study can be generalized to other subjects or settings because of the limitations of the sample size (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014). This study is not generalized to larger population, as a result, has a weak external validity.
Summary of the Major Points of the Paper
From Nurse Staffing and the Relationship to Job Satisfaction and retention by (Hairr, Salisbury, Jonansson, & Redfern-Vance, 2014) we considered two important research questions for a quantitative study. It was reviewed the sample size and its representativeness of the population. After analyzing the data and procedures results we summarize the strengths and weakness of this study supporting our conclusion with (Peters, 2012, p. 150).
Overview of a Qualitative Article
The study conducted by (Lavoie-Tremblay et al., 2014), entitled Transforming care at the Bedside: Managers’ and Health Care Providers’ Perception of their Change Capabilities will be the focus of the article analysis for this assignment. We are going to evaluate the research question of the study, the study design, representativeness, and the result of the data analysis including strengths and weakness of the study.
The problem that has been addressed in this study is the perceptions of managers and others healthcare providers about their change capabilities. The research questions are the following: Are the new strategies, that nurses are implementing, working to create better results in a way that make communication and teamwork easier and more efficient? Does the new project reduce wasteful work? (Lavoie-Tremblay et al., 2014).
In the above research questions the research has interest in specific information from the person point of view and their inside about the subject studied (Mauk, 2012, p. 189).
Participants that are knowledgeable on the researching theme are called key informants for the purpose of qualitative research.
Transforming care at the Bedside: Managers’ and Health Care Providers’ Perception of their Change Capabilities by (Lavoie-Tremblay et al., 2014), is a qualitative design study. Among of the four types of qualitative research, our study is categorized as grounded theory where the main review of literature is examined when the research has being completed to compare the theory with other reviews, and create theories for other processes (Mauk, 2012, p. 199). There is not set of sample size at the beginning of the data collection. The researcher gets data until they are saturated with the information needed (Mauk, 2012, p. 200). The strategy used in our study is focus groups. The study involved three focus groups: pediatric medicine unit, an adult acute respiratory care unit, and an adult neurologic unit. Also was considered three individual interviews. The study was conducted for nine months (Lavoie-Tremblay et al., 2014).
Sample Size and Representativeness
As stated before, sample size in grounded theory is known at the end of the collection data. It relied on focus groups where the key informants where selected from managers and healthcare providers included in the transforming care at the bedside (TCAB) teams. It also includes recruited patient’s representation from the hospital’s committees whose members had been patients or had family members who were patient. The sample included sixteen women and three men for a total of nineteen participants. The demographic information (gender, age, education, job title) was collected to allow for an external assessment of the generalizability of the findings to a different setting (Polit & Beck, 2012, p. 518).
Results of data analysis Procedures
Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed using NVivo data analysis. This procedure facilitates a rigorous analysis of unstructured data (Miles, Huberman, & Saldaña, 2013). Data analysis was examined in three ways: Condensing the data or coding the transcripts, presenting the data for discussion with the research team, and verifying the data with an audit trail to keep a record of the data collection details throughout the study. Two outside researchers coded the transcripts to reduce the chances of biased interpretation.
Some of the themes identified were: Learning skills, sharing leadership capabilities with other staff members, impact of the changes for the institution and personally, the perception of the team approach to lead change, among others.
Summary of the Strengths and weakness
The strengths of the research article were sustained in the fact that the motivation to work as a team develops change capabilities in participants. The study gave the tools and resources necessary to identify, implement and evaluate changes. The study was successful in developing most of the target elements to change. Participants mentioned how their unit’s mode of functioning went from working alone to teamwork style. Also, they mentioned that the TCAB project helped them develop new skills and capacities for change. This study has credibility (Mauk, 2012, p. 200). It has being confirmed through members check after researchers sharing the results with participants to make sure the finding reflected what they say during the interviews.
The study limits the generalizability of the results because was only conducted in three units.
Summary of the Main Points of the Paper
Transforming care at the Bedside: Managers’ and Health Care Providers’ Perception of their Change Capabilities by (Lavoie-Tremblay et al., 2014) we considered two important research questions for a qualitative study. It was reviewed the sample size and its representativeness of the population. After analyzing the data and procedures results we summarize the strengths and weakness of this study supporting our conclusion with (Mauk, 2012, p. 194).
Adams, S. (2012). Identifying research questions. In N. A. Schmidt, & J. M. Brown (Eds.), Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (2nd ed., pp. 67-87). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Hairr, D. C., Salisbury, H., Jonansson, M., & Redfern-Vance, N. (2014, May/June). Nurse staffing and the relationship to job satisfaction and retention. Nursing Economic$, 32. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=f51622aa-cd17-4c31-8ea1-ffc238d6c2bf@sessionmgr4001&hid=4212
Lavoie-Tremblay, M., O’Connor, P., Lavigne, G. L., Biron, A., Ringer, J., Baillageon, S., … Briand, A. (2014, Nov). Transforming care at the bedside: Managers’ and health care providers’ perceptions of their change capacities. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 45(11), 514-520. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20141023-02
Mauk, K. L. (2012). Qualitative design: using words to provide evidence. In N. A. Schmidt, & J. M. Brown (Eds.), Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (2nd ed., pp. 187-215). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A method sourcebook (3rd ed.). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=3CNrUbTu6CsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Qualitative+data+analysis:+A+method+sourceboock&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NZzOVMT_L6fPsQStvIDYDA&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Qualitative data analysis: A method sourceboock&f=false
Peters, R. M. (2012). Quantitative design: Using numbers to provide evidence. In N. A. Schmidt, & J. M. Brown (Eds.), Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (2nd ed., pp. 165-185). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
White, A. H. (2012). Using samples to provide evidence. In N. A. Schmidt, & J. M. Brown (Eds.), Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (2nd ed., pp. 247-271). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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