Hypothesis Teenagers Pregnancy Health Essays
Info: 5354 words (21 pages) Nursing Essay
Published: 11th Feb 2020
Nowadays we have serious problems about the teenager’s pregnancy and the abortion. People do not take serious about having sex before marriage. It is now became a way to developing relationship each other. Teenager’s pregnancy is not that serious problem. The abortion is most an important matter in this situation. The abortion is a murder. It is killing their baby. I want to talk about the pregnancy and the abortion in the world.
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Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo. Its means that fetus is killed. Abortion gives harmful facts to human’s body. If someone wants to do abortion because of their fine life, they killed their baby and themselves. Abortion has various methods. The baby removes for the use of sharpened tools, physical trauma, and other traditional methods. It also has a history for the methods. Many countries have a various way to doing an abortion. In many parts of the world there is prominent and divisive public controversy over the ethical and legal issues of abortion.
There are many types of abortion methods. This graph is showing us about the way to remove fetus in various time. The contraception also has a time slots. The medicine called ‘Nolevo’ is most powerful method for non-surgical. If women take this medicine after having sex, the chemicals from medicine kill sperm and prevent adapting between sperm and ovum. But that is only possible in 72hours. The time before 24hours is most successful duration for the preventing. In the case of failure of medical abortion, vacuum or manual aspiration is used to finalizing the surgical abortion. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Abortionmethods.png/350px-Abortionmethods.png
Surgical method is the most safety way to remove the fetus. They do not put anything on to the uterus. They suctioning in to the uterus and cut off the baby. The baby thrown out from the womb is killed or forced to dead. This is a picture of the baby came out from the womb. This baby cannot see the world and cannot breath and does not have name. it just killed by their parents.
In the first 12 weeks, suction-aspiration or vacuum abortion is the most common method for the abortion. Manual Vacuum aspiration (MVA) abortion consists of removing the fetus or embryo. Sooner abortion gives reliable result. Manual Vacuum Aspiration also known as ‘mini-suction’ and ‘menstrual extraction’ can be used in early pregnancy. From the 15th week until 26th, Dilation and Evacuation is used. It consists of opening the cervix of the uterus and emptying it using surgical instruments and suction. Dilation and curettage is the second most common method of abortion. It examines of the uterine lining for the possible malignancy, investigation of abnormal bleeding and abortion. Curettage is cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette. The World Health Organization recommends this procedure (also called sharp curettage) only when Manual Vacuum Aspiration is not available.
There are some other techniques of abortion in the second trimester. Premature delivery can be induced with prostaglandin. This can be coupled with injecting the amniotic fluid with hypertonic solutions containing saline or urea. After the 16th week of gestation abortions can be induced by intact dilation and extraction which requires surgical decompression of the fetus’ head before evacuation. A hysterectomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section. It is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy.
From the 20th to 23rd week of gestation, an injection the fetal heart is used as the first phase of the surgical abortion. It is make sure of the fetus is not born alive.
An herbal abortion is one another methods in the world. It is safe and effectual methods to women. Herb is plant and it has strong flavour and health things on it. There are many effective herbs for abortion. Parsley, black cohosh and pennyroyal are common useful herbs for abortion.
Parsley is generally considered to be both safe and effective. But it is limited if a blast cyst has implanted in the lining of the womb. It is unlikely that herbal abortions with parsley are effective when more than a few days have passed since implantation. Parsley oil is nominally effective in this capacity, but it is also considered to be immensely dangerous. It can cause severe inflammation throughout the body.
Many countries know that black cohosh can be extremely effective in treating many disorders of the female reproductive system. And it is also used in the traditionally uses. Many people believe that it is a safe home abortion method.
Pennyroyal is the herb most widely known for its abortifacient properties. While there are a few rare herbalists and naturopathic gynecologists who recommend its use pennyroyal is generally considered to be very unsafe owing to its ability to cause acute and terminal liver failure. There have been several case reports of deaths in women who used pennyroyal to induce abortion. It is likely that other incidents have gone unreported.
Pennyroyal will cause even more serious complications than other abortfacient. While all herbal abortion methods and pharmaceutical abortion pills can cause death if the pregnancy has implanted outside of the uterus.
The legislation about the abortion is become a serious matter in this time. People do not care about the abortion and they do not want have a baby. If they get a baby they thought it is just a miracle and their fault. Then they decided abortion too easily. Even women suffered rape; they decided to kill the baby. My opinion is that if women have a baby of raping. The government and all the care line must allow doing an abortion. Because that baby is not their loved and they do not want to get that baby from strangers. If government does not allow that then, they have to take the baby to others or give her money to care that baby. Abortion is illegal against the Bible. The Bible said that the baby is same if it is born or none born. It is a creature from God.
International status of abortion law http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/AbortionLawsMap-NoLegend.png/350px-AbortionLawsMap-NoLegend.png
Legal on request
Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioeconomic factors, and/or fetal defects
Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health
Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental health
Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, and/or mental health
Illegal with no exceptions
Varies by region
This is the law about the abortion around the world wide.
This is the graph of the abortion ranking.
Before the 19th century, most US states had no specific abortion laws. Women were able to end a pregnancy prior to viability with the assistance of medical personnel.
Abortion is one of the most visible, controversial, and legally active areas in the field of medicine. These laws have a variety of controversial questions;
The issue of parental notification. A number of state laws do require that some minors notify parents before obtaining an abortion, but what provisions are necessary to protect young women who feel they cannot notify their parents?
Should spouses be notified before a woman has an abortion?
Has the pregnancy progressed far enough that the foetus could live on its own before termination (termed viability)?
Should there be mandatory waiting periods before an abortion can take place?
What might be mandatory wording for counseling sessions or consent forms?
Should public funds be used for abortions?
What regulations if any should apply to abortion providers?
What provisions might be made against specific abortion techniques?
Should emergency contraception be allowed?
Should the rules be different in cases of sexual assault and rape?
Approximately 25% of the world population lives in countries with highly restrictive abortion laws. It has mostly in Latin America, Africa and Asia. These are the countries where abortion is most restricted according to the law. In some countries, such as in Chili, women still go to prison for having an illegal abortion.
Women can chose one, either abortion or having a baby. This selection is most difficult in her life. Because both options will gives her pain. Most states allow a grace period of around six months after the child is born. This grace period permits the birth mother to change her mind about placing the child for adoption. They want to become a parent; they must change their mind before. If they care their child with curious way, that child will get a hurt. It means it is not different when they kill this baby. If they do not want to get a baby then abort it and they decide to have a baby then get the baby and care this baby as like as your real baby.
People against abortion argue that parents need to be informed about and approve an abortion for a daughter younger than 18 years. Those supporting the rights of a woman to choose abortion said that the parental consent is not required for a woman to carry a pregnancy to term. If or not do parents need to give permission for a woman seeking birth control such as pills or an intrauterine device. Parents are also not consulted when a woman seeks treatment for a sexually transmitted disease.
Research shows that many young women younger than 18 years do involve their parents in their decision to abort (45%). Laws requiring parental consent are forcing minors to obtain abortions much later in their pregnancies. Some minors must travel great distances to states with no such law.
The highest teenager’s pregnancy rate is United States. It has an amount of 494,357 births from the teenagers.
The statics of abortion are researched as;
In the United States: In 2003, about 16 women for every 1,000 women aged 15-44 years had an abortion, and for every 1,000 live births, about 241 abortions were performed, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. In the past 20 years, considerable progress has been made in the technology used for second-trimester abortion. This and the social issues surrounding abortion have led to more women seeking terminations later in pregnancy.
Safety: Legal abortion is a safe procedure. Infection rates are less than one percent and fewer than 1 in 100,000 deaths occurs from first-trimester abortions. Abortion is safer for the mother than carrying a pregnancy to term. Medical and surgical abortions are both safe and effective when performed by trained practitioners.
Race: Most women seeking abortion are white (53%) 36% are black, 8% are of another race, and 3% are of unknown race.
Age: Abortion rates are highest among 20- to 24-year-old women. Rates are lowest among women younger than 20 or older than 40 years but these women are far more likely to have an abortion if they become pregnant.
In other world: Abortion causes at least 13% of all deaths among pregnant women. New estimates are that 50 million abortions are performed worldwide each year, with 30 million of them in developing countries. Approximately 20 million of these are performed unsafely because of conditions or lack of provider training.
Number of abortions per year = 42 Million
Number of abortions per day = 115,000
83% of all abortions are obtained in developing countries and 17% occur in developed countries. It means that developing countries has a highest birth rate. Developed countries people can abort their baby but it is not possibly to do of developing countries people. That is why Africa and Eastern Asia has many birth and death rate. Children will die before an age of 1~2.
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As with many developing countries the rate of teenage pregnancy in South Africa is high. Most people argue that this is a substantial problem for the country. It is an expression of a failure to help young girls deal with sexuality. This failure leads to not only pregnancies and abortions but also to STDs and HIV and AIDS. Women get an AIDS from sexual relationship and her baby also get an AIDS from birth.
There are many factors behind teenage pregnancy in South Africa. Often adequate knowledge of contraception is lacking due to negative attitudes regarding sexual activity before marriage. Young girls are not educated about contraceptive use because many believe around that. They must wait until they are married to have sex anyway.
Teenage pregnancy in South Africa is mainly a problem among women who live in rural. South Africa’s urban female adolescents are also at a high risk of finding themselves pregnant at an early age. These urban girls have become addicted to drugs, alcohol, and expensive lifestyles. It is to ensure that they have the money for their desires. They sadly stumble onto the path of prostitution and often become pregnant and drop out of school.
Unfortunately, there are a number of myths the most prominent being that sleeping with a virgin will cure HIV-AIDS that actually promote the rape of young women. In many cases these victims are left pregnant. Education regarding these myths and other issues relating to teenage pregnancy in South Africa are believed to be fundamental in dealing with the problem of adolescent pregnancy. Many education programs, however, are controversial, as is the practice of forcing a young girl who is visibly pregnant to drop out of school furthermore; a consensus has not been reached as to what degree tradition should play in educating young girls.
One controversial practice that may be impacting teenage pregnancy in South Africa is that of virginity testing in rural KwaZulu-Natal, where girls on average between the ages of 7 and 26 allow a stranger to check if their hymens are intact. The girls are overjoyed when the test confirms they are virgins. People supporting this practice say that it is an effective tool in stopping the spread of teenage pregnancies and HIV, while opponents claim that the practice is unconstitutional, unhygienic and a violation of human rights.
Advocates of the practice also agree that virginity testing is unhygienic at the moment, as the tester touches up to 600 girls a day, often with bare hands and without washing hands between girls; however, advocates claim that if the government supported the practice, there would be funding to purchase gloves, food, and areas where girls could be tested in private. Furthermore, many supporters of the practice argue that in a country where rape of young girls is prevalent, virginity testing is proving to be a useful method of uncovering sexual abuse on young girls who fear speaking out about it.
PREGNANCY, CONTRACEPTION, ABORTION
Marie Stops Clinics
Has 30 day clinics and 10 micro clinics around the country offering safe abortions, family planning services including birth control, pregnancy tests, male and female sterilization, HIV testing and ante-natal services. Fees charged according to client’s income bracket.
Toll free: 0800 11 77 85
National: (011) 838 3271
This is a service that about cares of abortion.
Teenager’s pregnancy is too much difficult to care it. In school there must have a support system. People do not want to their children gets pregnancy before marriage. But that can be happened in this stage. A sexual relationship is became a ways of love and developing their relationship. If one of the students in the school gets a baby, what can school do to that girl? That girl does not want to attend a school and will get an afraid against meet all her friends. Then the school must help her to get rid of everything on her mind. Tell all the students that take care of her like before.
The school must have;
Student help-line(far away from the class)
These various things give more comfortable to the pregnancy students.
There are a lot of abortifacient facts in the world.
The Pill – Progesterone only, low dose combination pills
Progesterone hormonal contraceptives have three mechanisms of actions
Thicken the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from entering the uterus and fallopian tube
Alter the lining of the uterus so implantation cannot take place.
If third action is occurs, the abortion is work. It means that a human cannot continue to develop without the nourishment from the mother’s uterine wall. It is important to educate ourselves and our clients about this potential action of the Pill. Those who seek to protect the sanctity of human life from the point of fertilization should be cautious about taking any drug which could end the developing child’s life.
This implant is placed under the skin of the arm for up to a 5 year period. The progesterone hormone’s effect is to suppress ovulation. But after 2 years there is a greater chance of break-through ovulation and fertilization. The hormone may prevent implantation of the embryo. They break up of connection with woman’s fertilisation.
This Progesterone hormone derivative is injected every 3 months to prevent a woman from ovulating. But it also alters the uterine lining. Break-through ovulation and fertilization will be occurs. The hormone may prevent implantation of the embryo. Then the foetus cannot get the place to live.
Morning after pill
This medication has an anticipatory effect on the endometrial. That is a hardening of the lining of the uterus. It prevents implantation of the tiny new human being (blast cyst stage). For example, a rape victim had ovulated just before the assault and fertilization had occurred, then the use of such medication after the event would clearly be abortive.
There is a possibility that can act in a sterilizing fashion. The large hormone could rapidly affect in the ovary and prevent an ovulation that going to occurred one to three days after the intercourse. If sperm were still present and active in the woman’s genital tract, she might have been fertilized one to three days after the event. In this case some have suggested that such treatment might actually prevent a pregnancy. There is no way of knowing if she was fertilized at all. If it is so, which effect the medicine had.
When a woman takes RU-486, it kills her baby by interfering with progesterone. The hormone which keeps the baby implanted in the wall of the mother’s uterus. Two days later, the woman returns to the clinic to receive a prostaglandin drug which induces labour and expels the dead embryo RU-486 is used until 7 weeks after the first day of her last menstrual period. If the baby hasn’t been expelled by the time the woman makes her third visit to the doctor, she will require a surgical abortion procedure.
Raymond, Klein and Dumble are the pro-abortion authors of RU486 Misconceptions. It stress that RU-486 is not safe for women and list the following contraindications.
A person should not take RU-486
under age 18 or over 35
history of fibroids
abnormal menstrual bleeding or endometriosis cervical incompetence
previous abortion or abnormal pregnancies
pelvic inflammatory disease
recent use of IUD or the pill 3 months
Methotrexate & Misoprostol
Two drugs that were developed for cancer and ulcer treatment are now being used in combination to kill babies. Methotrexate is used to poison the baby and then Misoprostol empties the uterus of the baby. Keep in mind that Methotrexate is a chemotherapy drug with the potential for serious toxicity. It can result in the death of the mother as well as the baby.
Aftercare is more an important things for the lady who did take abortion. Either surgical or medical abortion gives very harmful effects on human’s body. They have to know clearly about that and before they going out from the hospital. You may ask the questions to the doctors. I researched about the aftercare of surgical abortion. Most of them are also possibly to a medical abortion as well.
On taking care of yourself – Basic things
Drink lots of fluids
Stay off work for a few days if you can
Take vitamins, eat healthy food, and try to sleep
Take the antibiotics prescribed by your doctor right away and for the full amount of days prescribed!
No exercise for two weeks
No swimming or tub baths for 2 weeks
Don’t lift anything over 15 pounds for two weeks, don’t use anything vaginally for 2-4 weeks – no sex, no tampons, no douches.
You can ovulate as soon as two weeks after an abortion, which means yes, you could get pregnant again within two weeks after an abortion!
After the 2-4 weeks is over, you should not have sex again unless you feel physically recovered, and have discussed with your partner what you want to do if an unplanned pregnancy occurs again. Do not let yourself be pressured into having sex again before you are physically and emotionally ready. You can get pregnant as soon as two weeks after an abortion. Your body normally will go back to its regular cycle. So once you decide you are ready to resume sexual intercourse again, make sure you are using birth control right away. As many of us know birth control is not 100% effective. It is very important that you don’t have sex again until you are healed physically and emotionally and you have a clear consensus on what will happen if you become unexpectedly pregnant again.
For women who had an abortion for maternal health reasons or for a poor prenatal diagnosis. Consult your doctor about birth control and future pregnancies.
If you were 9 or more weeks along in the pregnancy. It is possible that you may have trouble with milk or a milky fluid leaking from your breasts after the abortion. This can be upsetting, but it won’t last for long. It’s a normal effect of the hormones that your body releases when you are no longer pregnant. These hormones make your body start to produce milk. Whenever a pregnancy is ended. Your breasts may feel sore, tight, swollen, and will leak out droplets of clear to whitish fluid. At times the milk may ‘let down’, and a substantial amount of liquid may come out. Wear a well-fitting/snug bra and try to avoiding stimulation of your breasts or nipples. Wear the bra 24 hours a day until your milk dries up. It can take one to four weeks for the milk to dry up. It will not be as painful as it originally feels when the milk first comes in – as the milk is not ‘used’ the pressure on the milk ducts will cause the milk to ‘dry up’. Keep wearing that snug-fitting bra, and take Tylenol for the soreness, and this will subside. If you develop a fever, or extreme tenderness in either of your breasts, consult a doctor – there is also a condition where your milk glands can get infected and this will need to be treated with antibiotics.
Visit the Recent Abortion Support Board or to the Medical Questions & Problems.
In the Weeks time after abortion
The pregnancy hormones that your body generates to keep you pregnant start to dissipate after the pregnancy has been terminated. Depending on how far along in the pregnancy you were and how sensitive you are to hormones. You may have pregnancy hormones still in your body for up to a year after an abortion. For the first 2-4 weeks time after abortion. Your hormones will make you feel like you are on an emotional rollercoaster ride.
You need to do;
Cry at the drop of a hat, and for no reason
Still have problems with nausea
Still have problems with tiredness and weakness
May still feel slightly pregnant and swollen
May still test weakly ‘positive’ on a pregnancy test
May feel extremely depressed
May have no appetite, and no desire for food
May have trouble sleeping, or concentrating,p>
After the first month the pregnancy hormones are still there and they are slowly leaving your body. It can take from 6-24 months after an interrupted pregnancy before your body and hormonal systems feel completely back to normal again.
This means that;
Your period may come at a different time each month, even if it was regular like clockwork before. It may come in 25 days, then not come for 35 days, and may be different every month, and may be completely different from your normal period.
The length of your period (amount of days during which you bleed) may vary from month to month
The amount of bleeding and the amount of cramping you have may vary from a little to a lot. It may be different every month. It may be completely different from your normal period.
You may feel signs of pregnancy again each month before your period starts. Which could include of swollen and tender breasts, nausea, tiredness, cravings for foods, fullness in the uterine area, frequent urination, back pain and stronger than usual PMS.
Your cervix may feel tender and sex may be difficult or painful
All of these above symptoms and occurrences have been reported again and again by women visiting this site. However if you are having sex, it is also possible for you to become pregnant again, and technically you can get pregnant again within two weeks after an abortion, you can also get pregnant while you are having your period. So be very careful, use lots of birth control, and we know that even birth control is not 100% effective. I recommend having alternative forms of sex when possible. If your partner is loved and understanding, he should be able to work with you while you recover, and find alternate ways to enjoy each other, without slowing your physical recovery, and allowing you the chance for closeness without doing things your body is not ready for.
Like this, aftercare of the abortion is very important. You can get a baby in 2 weeks time if you having sex after that time. You have to have keep your body relaxes. 2 weeks time is most important period to who have abortion. They have to do the checklist about the careless. If they avoid to doing a check, they will get a serious problems after that time. It also gives a disease.
Postabortal Hematometra is severe cramping. It discomforts due to the collection of blood in the uterus that can occur following evacuation of the uterus. This kind of disease causes that the cervical becomes blocked. The uterus fills with clots and continues to bleed. The uterus cannot contract. You have to go to hospital if you get these various strange things. It is sign for the Postabortal Hematometra. The signs are consists of a severe cramping, Sweating, Lightheadedness, Nausea Vomiting and diarrhea. You can immediately treats using prompt reevaluation of the uterus produces rapid relief of symptoms. Aspiration will yield blood and clots. There is rarely any remaining pregnancy tissue. It should be ensured that the uterus is completely evacuated.
Most abortions are safe and uncomplicated. Most women do not have physical problems afterwards. But some surgical procedure has risks. There are possible serious complications. If someone do not feel well or are worried that something might be wrong. You can call a doctor or your local ER. Don’t worry about being embarrassed or ashamed about that you’ve had an abortion. Calling and telling what is going on with you.
Some women are extremely sensitive to pregnancy hormones. This can cause depression to her. Doctor must check about that and give her a prescription. If you are still have trouble with depression after 2 months of abortion. You should seek out treatment from a doctor. The same hormones that cause PPD and PMDD are the ones active in your system after an abortion. It can cause severe depression if your system is sensitive to these hormones.
How to prevent abortion? It is a rhetorical question to all of you. Preventing abortion is impossible at that stage, but we can prevent it beforehand. Prevent pregnancy is the only way to prevent all the failure. Abortion is like an AIDS. It also increases the birth and death rate. AIDS is a disease but abortion is murder. I would like to share with the various methods for preventing pregnancy.
There are many ways to prevent. The pill is both before having sexual relationship and after having sex. After pill is an emergency contraception like ‘Nolevo’. It must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex in order to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. A woman must take 1 Norlevo and a second pill 12 to 24 hours later. Beside Norlevo, most combination birth control pills can also be used. Take within 72 hours of unprotected sex. One dose 100 µg ethinylestradiol + 500 µg levonorgestrel (2-4 birth control pills), 12 hours later a second dose.
For the women, there are many things to prevent. I researched it and it has;
DIAPHRAGM is a rubber disk with a flexible rim that covers the cervix and must be used together with spermicidal. It is available by prescription only and must be sized by a health professional. The diaphragm protects for six hours and should be left in place for at least six hours after the last intercourse but not for longer than a total of 24 hours.
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES protect against pregnancy by the combined actions of the hormones estrogens and progestin. The hormones prevent ovulation. The pills have to be taken every day as directed and do not work after vomiting or diarrhoea. Side effects of the pill can be nausea, headache, breast tenderness, weight gain, irregular bleeding, and depression.
DEPO-PROVERA is a hormonal contraceptive injected into a muscle on the arm or buttock every three months. The injection must be repeated every 3 months. The menstruation can become irregular and sometimes even absent.
IMPLANTS (such as Norplant or implanon) are made up of small rubber rods, which are surgically implanted under the skin of th
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