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HIV/AIDS: Stigma and discrimination

Info: 3507 words (14 pages) Nursing Essay
Published: 11th Feb 2020

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Stigma and discrimination face by people living with HIV/AIDS

It has been defined by Roura et al., (2009) that the stigma associated with a precise kind of relationship between the behvaiours, perceptions and stereotypes is concerned with a deep sense of social deprivation. Despite the fact, that the concept of stigma is around 40 years old, it has been much researched on and is widely used to draw implications both in social and cultural contexts. All societies have imparted convictions and implications which help them translate encounters and conduct. Implanted inside that framework are the “regulations” based on which is to be demonized and who is definitely not. Despite the fact that these “guidelines” may contrast from society to society, shame is for the most part considered an “adverse, moral or judgemental meaning of an individual or social circumstance, regularly joined with disparaging, disrespect, fault, and attribution of obligation regarding the condition”. Disgrace is not just connected to persons with undesirable physical properties. A great many people are acutely mindful that persons with undesirable characteristics, whether physical, mental or passionate, are effectively and immediately defamed. In British society, a great many people will concur that individuals are obviously disparaged on the premise of their race, society, financial status, sex and age. Notwithstanding, the presence of disgrace can be more treacherous when connected to those with physical and dysfunctional behaviour, inability or physical impedances, or when connected with ugliness, indiscrimination, kid/grown-up ill-use, same-sex introduction, medication utilization/misuse and passing. Once derided, the individual is discriminated as a worthy part of society, subsequently the expression “ruined personality” stated by Pearson et al., (2009) to depict the division of the deprived individuals from “ordinary” parts of society. Once named as an “other,” the slandered individual is then subjected to separation, the activity emulating the cognitive methodology of derision. 

LO1: Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative research methods

It has been stated that in the current era of Modern science there are multiple ways of thinking and identifying qualitative and quantitative research. The disagreement between qualitative examination methodologies and other research techniques is in inconsistency with the methodological aspects, as well as shows up in the opposition, in the epistemological field. This implies that the instruments, as well as in the focal methodologies describe the generation of information. I accept that the qualitative epistemology is focused around standards that have vital methodological outcomes. Alternately, quantitative outline addresses the numerical delineation of proof examined and information gathered.

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Logical information from qualitative exploration is not legitimized by the quantity of subjects examined, however by the nature of its outflow (Bernard & Bernard, 2013). The quantity of subjects to study reacts to a quantitative paradigm, characterized essentially by the needs of the learning procedure found sometime during the examination in factual means. Singular statement of the subject in both the techniques gets centrality as the spot which may have at one point for the generation of thoughts by the analyst. The data passed on by a specific subject can be a critical minute for the generation of learning, without essentially must be rehashed in different subjects and information gathering techniques.

Qualitative exploration offers numerous perspectives with quantitative examination morals. Along these lines, the moral issues are appropriate to science as a rule to both the examination plans. Clearly, knowing the multifaceted nature of morals and good logic, it is prescribed that an exchange that is expected to approach moral judgements of qualitative examination ought to be upheld by a few hypotheses. At the same time there are such a variety of hypotheses that a well meaning push to actualize large portions of them in the investigation of a particular examination can get to be inefficient.

Especially on account of quantitative exploration, it is important to incorporate individuals with capacity and readiness of reflection and correspondence that they comprehend social qualities, needs and powerlessness, and the concerns of potential study subjects (Bernard & Bernard, 2013). Leading qualitative exploration is similarly less immoderate than directing quantitative examination. Qualitative research likewise turns out to be viable when the exploration obliges unlimited measure of data.

LO2: Is Research evidence appropriate to health and social care practice

Since the first instances of AIDS were distinguished in 1981, HIVs have been disparaged. The examination confirmation existed on this point involves to the broad accessibility of information and databases. Cao et al., (2010) recommended that in social and medicinal services connection, the dread of AIDS spread over our country, HIVs being deprived from their occupations, ousted from their homes, denied restorative tend to, savagery and expelled from their own particular families. Additionally, HIV-positive kids have been denied admission to schools, games groups and clubs, and have encountered badgering from other youngsters and folks of other kids. This social derision of HIVs is not restricted to the United Kingdom, either.

In different nations, HIVs have been beaten to death; disregarded by neighbours, managers and social insurance specialists; and even compared to rehearsing witchcraft. As a result of its relationship with the unthinkable subject of male-to-male sex and the trepidation of tainting, society has reacted to HIV/AIDS by disparaging persons to avoid them as much as possible. Is this belittling got from outsiders, as well as it can be gotten from the HIV’s relatives, companions and health awareness experts too. It is interesting to note that during an era when HIVs need social backing like never before, they are rather subjected to the threatening vibe and dismissal connected with HIV-related disgrace.

Radcliffe et al., (2010) characterized the expression “Helps related shame” as “a term that alludes to preference, reducing, undermining, and segregation guided at individuals saw to have AIDS or HIV, and the people, gatherings, and groups with which they are related”. This belittling can be showed in numerous diverse ways, frequently focused around the current generalizations of the society. In the United Kingdom, HIV-related disgrace showed through seclusion, dismissal, stereotyping, segregation and off and on again savagery. Social Factors of HIV-Related Stigma HIV/ AIDS confront shame on numerous distinctive levels. Medicinal diseases as of now can be a disgrace of their own, particularly focused around the reality of the condition.

Since there is right now no cure for HIV/ AIDS, the condition is viewed as “deadly,” a term which strikes fear in the hearts of the vast majority. In an examination article on “Supports and Stigma,” Wagner et al., (2010) demonstrates that there are four particular qualities of HIV/AIDS that inspire disgrace from society, specifically: 1) apparent obligation of the PWHIV in getting the illness, 2) the “unalterable or degenerative” nature of the malady, 3) the way that it can be an infectious infection and 4) the promptly obvious indications of the sickness which show as the ailment advances. Rao et al., (2012) draw a qualification between “instrumental AIDS disgrace” (identifying with the transmittable and deadly nature of HIV) and “typical AIDS shame”. Instrumental AIDS shame is an after-effect of society’s characteristic apprehension of the illness and the absence of instruction on infection transmission.

LO3: Examining research evidence with consideration to validity and reliability

In assessing studies, numerous methodological concerns do develop. Maybe, the most vital concerns are reliability and validity of the exploration procedure. Reliability appraisal of a study device is a centre segment of behavioural research and can be used effectively into immediate perceptions by deciding best conceivable levels of presentation. A few strategies have been utilized that can give reliability of the survey estimation routines, including test-retest, Pearson coefficient, Kendall’s coefficient, odd-even, and the proportional structures strategy. Social approval systems are substantial to the degree that they gauge what they claim to quantify. It is basic that great inward and outer validity be expressed as a social approval method. In addition, the outside validity of the evaluation methodology can be evaluated and still is faulty (Ritchie et al., 2013). The measurements analysts accept they are measuring may have little connection to what is really being measured and that face validity is deficient as the sole paradigm for assessing the validity of appraisal gadgets.

One approach to survey validity would be to have the social approval evaluation created or reassessed by a board of masters or judges who are not included straightforwardly in the examination. An alternate technique would be to have a social approval evaluation of the social acceptance instrument. Case in point, in the wake of reacting to a poll, raters would react to a second survey that let them know the reason for the first survey and requested that the rate how well they thought the inquiries surveyed the reason (Ritchie et al., 2013). Also, analysts need to be mindful of radiance impacts, inclinations to tolerance or seriousness, focal propensity reactions, and position or closeness predispositions of raters, which might misleadingly improve the reliability of estimation without enhancing reaction exactness or validity.

LO4: Demonstrate knowledge of the relationship between research theory and health and social care practice

Investigation demonstrates that social help whether perceived or genuine is especially paramount for females as they depend all the more on social connections contrasted with men in comparable circumstances. A few studies have recommended that apparent social backing is more vital than genuine backing. Social backing has been demonstrated to impact both well being conduct and well being conclusions. Further, social backing has been indicated to cradle the impact of natural stressors, in this way, minimizing antagonistic results of upsetting circumstances. There is an overall reported backwards relationship between social backing and misery among HIV-positive populaces. Albeit much is thought about HIV-related shame and HIV-divulgence, an audit of the writing uncovers an absence of understanding of how they influence misery. Consequently, the general objective of this study is to look at the connections between sorrow (a mental result of HIV illness) and HIV-related shame, exposure of HIV positive status, and social backing among African-American ladies with HIV infection.

Cao et al., (2010) portrayed social backing as an indispensable asset that an individual must draw upon for survival. As a safety asset, social backing is hypothesized to have an immediate impact on both cognitive evaluation and adapting endeavours. Social backing can help more positive examinations of individual life circumstances and backing more powerful adapting. Social backing can serve to lessen instability and stress and give the individual a method for diversion, passionate help, sensitivity and sympathy, and accommodating data. Ritchie et al., (2013) further developed the idea of social help, expressing that there is an agreeable refinement between the number and sorts of social connections and the view of the estimation of such connections. The quantity of social connections is termed the informal community.

The view of social connections is termed seen social backing. At long last, Ritchie et al., (2013) recommended that there are distinctive sorts of social backing, for example, passionate, instructive, or substantial, and the sort of help must additionally be considered notwithstanding the span of the informal community and the impression of the nature of help that is accessible. Cao et al., (2010) remarkable various studies that have demonstrated how social connections maintain wellbeing and on the other hand how low social help identifies with negative wellbeing results.

Broad exploration has showed that social combination has significant physical and mental medical advantages for more established grown-ups. What’s more, social backing has been indicated to be identified with positive conclusions in individuals living with HIV and, all the more particularly, to gay men living with HIV. Actually, adults matured 50 years and more seasoned include in excess of 10% of the HIV-positive populace in the United Kingdom. This rate is most likely excessively low focused around the way that more established grown-ups are rarely tried for HIV.

Not their doctors or the more established grown-ups themselves see that they are at danger for the sickness. This is further convoluted on the grounds that numerous manifestations of HIV can be camouflaged as results of maturing. Alongside ladies and minorities, more seasoned grown-ups are right now one of the quickest developing HIV-contaminated populaces. They are particularly defenceless against disease (by physical changes in the body with age and by disappointment to utilize proper insurance amid sex) and, when tainted, they are more averse to recognize the side effects, get tired and look for the help they require.

LO5: Gather evidence from a variety of research sources, including charts, graphs and tables, from text and online sources

Although, emotional distress serves as a motivator for help-seeking behavior, the fear of being stigmatized may cloud the person’s cognitive process of making the decision to seek help. As time is of the essence with HIV/ AIDS, this delay in seeking health or social services presents a real problem.

HIV/AIDS cases are also on the rise in such marginalized groups as African-Americans, women and older adults. Therefore, in many cases, HIVs are already stigmatized prior to disclosure of their HIV-positive condition. They know all too well the results of being stigmatized and, therefore, may be even more unwilling to disclose their HIV-positive status.

The HIV-related stigma, then, becomes a second or even third type of stigma that is forced upon them. In their study of HIV-related stigma received by African-American caregivers, Rudolph et al., (2010) stated that “social isolation stemming from HIV-related stigma may be exacerbated for women, for elderly people, and for people of colour”.

Persons who get HIV through circumstances which were out of their control (i.e., blood transfusions, needle-sticks or mother-to-kid) are even subject to this kind of slander, particularly as their infection advances. Typical AIDS shame is a statement of the general public’s negative state of mind connected with the transmission of HIV. Due to the way of HIV/ AIDS, it will in the end get to be important for the contaminated individual to look for restorative consideration, at any rate. The forceful enthusiastic impacts going with the ailment might likewise make the requirement for usage of social administrations.. As time is of the pith with HIV/ AIDS, this deferral in looking for well being or social administrations exhibits a genuine issue. To confound matters, more established grown-ups and some ethnic gatherings are now uncertain of western solution hones, human services associations and mental health administrations and, moreover, might not have equivalent access to these administrations. Albeit one may think divulgence to administration suppliers may not act like incredible a danger of being criticized as exposure to family, companions or associates, it still has dangers.


Since, the situation of HIV/ AIDS, is inevitably vital for the HIV-positive individuals to look for restorative consideration, at any rate, the compelling passionate impacts going with the disease might likewise make the requirement for use of social administrations. To entangle matters, more established grown-ups and some ethnic gatherings are as of now uncertain of western medication hones, human services associations and mental health administrations and, moreover, might not have equivalent access to these administrations. Albeit one may think deprivation to administration suppliers may not act like incredible a danger of being derided as exposure to family, companions or associates, it still has dangers. Notwithstanding the hazard that the HIV’s status may not be kept totally private, there is likewise the danger of being defamed by the very administration experts to whom the HIV’s turns for help. Despite the fact that health awareness experts may not have any desire to confess to slandering HIVs, the examination has confirm that HIV-related shame keeps on being available among some of them (Wagner et al., 2010). Notwithstanding the solid impact HIV-related disgrace can have on the self, it is characteristic for individuals to oppose being disparaged, and in this way, the social shame of HIV/ AIDS may make unnecessary deterrents to get social and health awareness administrations. On the off chance that the HIV’s urge to oppose defamation is stronger than their urge to look for help for themselves, they may evade usage of HIV-related administrations until such time that they cannot maintain a strategic distance from it any longer, maybe because of a hospitalization.


Bernard, H. R., & Bernard, H. R. (2013).Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage.

Cao, H., He, N., Jiang, Q., Yang, M., Liu, Z., Gao, M., … & Detels, R. (2010). Stigma against HIV-infected persons among migrant women living in Shanghai, China.AIDS Education and Prevention,22(5), 445.

Pearson, C. R., Micek, M. A., Pfeiffer, J., Montoya, P., Matediane, E., Jonasse, T., … & Gloyd, S. S. (2009). One year after ART initiation: psychosocial factors associated with stigma among HIV-positive Mozambicans.AIDS and Behavior,13(6), 1189-1196.

Radcliffe, J., Doty, N., Hawkins, L. A., Gaskins, C. S., Beidas, R., & Rudy, B. J. (2010). Stigma and sexual health risk in HIV-positive African American young men who have sex with men.AIDS patient care and STDs,24(8), 493-499.

Rao, D., Feldman, B. J., Fredericksen, R. J., Crane, P. K., Simoni, J. M., Kitahata, M. M., & Crane, H. M. (2012). A structural equation model of HIV-related stigma, depressive symptoms, and medication adherence.AIDS and Behavior,16(3), 711-716.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., & Ormston, R. (Eds.). (2013).Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage.

Roura, M., Urassa, M., Busza, J., Mbata, D., Wringe, A., & Zaba, B. (2009). Scaling up stigma? The effects of antiretroviral roll-out on stigma and HIV testing. Early evidence from rural Tanzania.Sexually transmitted infections,85(4), 308-312.

Rudolph, A. E., Davis, W. W., Quan, V. M., Ha, T. V., Minh, N. L., Gregowski, A., … & Go, V. (2012). Perceptions of community-and family-level injection drug user (IDU)-and HIV-related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam.AIDS care,24(2), 239-244.

Wagner, A. C., Hart, T. A., Mohammed, S., Ivanova, E., Wong, J., & Loutfy, M. R. (2010). Correlates of HIV stigma in HIV-positive women.Archives of women’s mental health,13(3), 207-214.


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