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Global Preparedness for Health Threats

2259 words (9 pages) Nursing Essay

17th Nov 2020 Nursing Essay Reference this

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Diseases and sickness have always existed among mankind. In the recent decades’ health epidemics have risen and conformed in correlation to human evolution. Solutions for such problems have been created as a deterrence, but the ever-changing biological make-up and persistence of communicable (and non-communicable) diseases have created troubles among the local and global communities. Proactive measures are required now more than ever in order to avoid international health emergencies. Many changes are needed and amongst them, many complications to improve global preparedness will be discussed.

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One of the important actors in maintaining favorable global health standards is The World Health Organization. WHO is a key player in these events. On April 7, 1948, the World Health Organization began.[1] This organization has branches throughout the world and aims to improve health for all individuals. Their duties are to avoid and prevent communicable and non-communicable disease outbreaks.[2] WHO is linked to the framework of the United Nations and works to improve and implement national health policies.[3]

In most of the 20th century, local or national public health agencies in the western world have promised clean water sources for city governments, government vaccination programs, and quarantine of contagious communities. In rare instances, international health strategy has been debated in correlation with infectious disease pandemics of communicable diseases such as influenza, cholera, or large-scale efforts to eradicate.

States rely extensively during the epidemic of diseases, on worldwide efforts to improve measures to deter the disease's propagation throughout its borders by incorporating warnings and quarantine actions, as well as international traffic surveillance. Accordingly, the global health system has evolved throughout the years, and succeeded in monitoring communicable diseases and reducing child mortality rate.[4] In addition, life expectancy has increased drastically in low to middle-income nations. However, today, this process is in a deep state of transition. The need to focus on how we address global health challenges has increased.

Several economic, human, technology, surveillance, and research health resources often already exist in communities that can actively support readiness efforts. Nevertheless, funding for disease programs, including Aids, hepatitis, paludism, and polio eradication, often don't include or promote preparedness permanently.[5] Whether accidentally or intentionally released on medical or societal structures, reparation and response mechanisms are not adequate to tackle the vast effects of a potentially fatal global pandemic.

Infrastructure and preparation for the production and produce of new vaccinations, antiviral drugs, and ways for efficiently exchanging therapeutic deterrents are inadequate in most nations. This instance of an outbreak involves careful planning in several sectors to improve social stability and threat coordination among nations.[6] Costs in disease prevention may utterly overpower the existing emergency response funding plans. This is a severe concern and a key reason for why increased funding is critical.[7]

The support for the poor and disadvantaged countries by development assistance to their health and more significant prioritized aid to the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund must be expanded for Donors, International Financing Institutions, Global Support and Humanitarian efforts to resolve the funds gaps in national health security action plans as a shared obligation and a greater public good.[8] Member States should commit to the increase in contributions from the WHO preparedness and response financing.[9] This is also including the development of a reconstruction scheme using funds from the updated Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility of the World Bank.[10] Without donations and funds for global health emergencies, economies of nations and lives of individuals all over the world will take a devastating turn for the worst. Collective aid is essential to the prevention or expansion of global health outbreaks.

Legislative preparation is also one of the vital parts of global emergency preparedness. Universally, laws define the government of what determines crisis, catastrophe, or overall emergency issues in terms of public safety. Rules and regulations help to build the framework for identifying, stopping, recording, and coping with cases of emergency. However, it has always been a challenge when determining the legislative framework during times of such emergencies.

Although procedural autonomy in crises can also lead to misunderstandings and sometimes chaos in times of an actual emergency, different parties may not correctly understand the changes in the legal environment or the ongoing changes in the emergency. Emergency acts committed by public-health practitioners, staff, or volunteers may be obscured concerning legalities.[11] Additionally, some respondents may act regardless of the actual repercussions, which would otherwise result in individual harm. Others, in contrast, may not participate in helping due to their fear of legal repercussions.[12] None of these outcomes are desirable. Furthermore, the threat of human rights infringement in disease emergency response is magnified because the urgency is not a matter of any other power but the executive.

Furthermore, it is trivial to resolve the internal management problems generated by a rapidly growing global health system. Although every nation has a desire to respond to global health crises, they vary in essential demeanors, which will influence the effectiveness of the different strategies for enforcing the arrangements. Constraints on the growth of policies on further developments are the consequences of every nation having a complex political and legal structure. Countries have diverse backgrounds, including encounters of pandemics and the involvement of international and national governments.[13]

However, strategic engagement among states can be perceived as a way of guaranteeing more stability and organizational capacity to impact universal issues. The need for continuous monitoring and assessment is emphasized in search of the best outcomes and the best prioritization in collaboration efforts. Conjointly, developing international global health laws will lead to stable partnerships and more effective implementation of international health norms.[14] This will include not only hierarchical ties between international organizations, nations, and non-governmental organizations but also hierarchical connections among such actors.[15] Coordination and planning for international precedents in health emergencies are vital if all actors are to understand their roles and work together, without doubling efforts or erecting bureaucratic barriers.

 Preparedness and overcoming threats recently are more advanced and adaptable. However, preparations needed to address unknown risks are still an obstacle, and unfortunately, measures used to address these risks are being deferred by inadequate public health capabilities, as well as by controversy concerning national sovereignty and global cooperation. Crises in public health have significantly shown that diseases continue to endanger human health in recent years. In order to protect the global health of individuals and address such threats, substantial local national and international public health establishments are needed so that they can detect and act prematurely to developing emergency health threats. Investing throughout the much-needed development required in order to improve these flaws, risk management for detrimental illnesses can be a continuing concern to international health regulators but also more importantly, to the world.

Bibliography

  • Barnett, Daniel J., Holly A. Taylor, James G. Hodge, Jr, and Jonathan M. Links. "Resource Allocation on the Frontlines of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Report of a Summit on Legal and Ethical Issues." Public Health Reports 124, no. 2 (March/April 2009): 295-303. https://doi.org/10.1177/003335490912400218.
  • Bennett, Belinda, and Terry Carney. "PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES OF INTERNATIONAL CONCERN: GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND LOCAL RESPONSES TO RISK." Medical Law Review 25, no. 2 (March 31, 2017): 223-39. https://doi.org/10.1093/medlaw/fwx004.
  • Craggs, Andy. "About WHO." World Health Organization. Accessed October 16, 2019. https://www.who.int/about.
  • Davies, Sara E. "What contribution can International Relations make to the evolving global health agenda?" International Affairs 86, no. 5 (September 2010): 1167-90. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40865133.
  • Global Preparedness Monitoring Board. "A world at risk: annual report on global preparedness for health emergencies." Last modified 2019. https://apps.who.int/gpmb/assets/annual_report/GPMB_annualreport_2019.pdf.
  • Gostin, Lawrence O., and Rebecca Katz. "The International Health Regulations: The Governing Framework for Global Health Security." The Milbank Quarterly 94, no. 2 (June 2016): 225-435. Accessed October 16, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12186.
  • Portela, Gustavo, Amanda Fehn, and Mario Dal Poz. "Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation." Ciênc. Collective Health 22, no. 7 (July 2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81322017227.02702017.
  • Revision process of the International Health Regulations (IHR). World Health Organization. Accessed October 16, 2019. https://www.who.int/ihr/revisionprocess/revision/en/.
  • Urbi, Jaden. "The difference between G-7, G-8, and G-20 — and why they matter." CNBC. Last modified June 8, 2018. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/08/difference-between-g7-g8-g20-world-economy.html.
  • World Health Organization. "Children: Reducing Mortality." World Health Organization. Last modified September 9, 2019. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality.
  • ———. "Influenza (Avian and other zoonotic)." World Health Organization. Last modified November 13, 2018. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(avian-and-other-zoonotic).
  • ———. "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)." World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/.
  • ———. "WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization." World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/biologicals/expert_committee/WHO_TRS_1016_web.pdf.
  • World Trade Organization. "Glossary Term." World Trade Organization. https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/glossary_e/g77_e.htm.

[1] Andy Craggs, "About WHO," World Health Organization, accessed October 16, 2019, https://www.who.int/about.

[2] Craggs, "About WHO," World Health Organization.

[3] Craggs, "About WHO," World Health Organization.

[4] World Health Organization, "Children: Reducing Mortality," World Health Organization, last modified September 9, 2019, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality.

[5] Global Preparedness Monitoring Board, "A world at risk: annual report on global preparedness for health emergencies.," last modified 2019, https://apps.who.int/gpmb/assets/annual_report/GPMB_annualreport_2019.pdf.

[6] Global Preparedness Monitoring Board, "A world."

[7]Global Preparedness Monitoring Board, "A world."

[8] Global Preparedness Monitoring Board, "A world."

[9] Global Preparedness Monitoring Board, "A world."

[10] Global Preparedness Monitoring Board, "A world."

[11] Daniel J. Barnett et al., "Resource Allocation on the Frontlines of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Report of a Summit on Legal and Ethical Issues," Public Health Reports 124, no. 2 (March/April 2009): https://doi.org/10.1177/003335490912400218.

[12] Barnett et al., "Resource Allocation."

[13] Sara E. Davies, "What contribution can International Relations make to the evolving global health agenda?," International Affairs 86, no. 5 (September 2010): [Page #], https://www.jstor.org/stable/40865133.

[14] Gustavo Portela, Amanda Fehn, and Mario Dal Poz, "Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation," Ciênc. Collective Health 22, no. 7 (July 2017): http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81322017227.02702017.

[15] Portela, Fehn, and Dal Poz, "Human resources."

 

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