Kinesio taping was invented in the 1970’s in Japan by Dr. Kenso Kase. Dr. Kase was intrigued with kinesiology and conservative ways of treating traumatized soft tissue. Through his new tape and technique development, Dr. Kase accomplished his goal: to have patients experience immediate improvement after one visit (21). Through ongoing work in 1984 Dr. Kase was able to establish the Japanese National Kinesio Taping Association and started using the method for the first time with the Japanese National Volleyball Association in 1988 Olympics. Moreover, it was formally used for the first time in the US with the National Athletic Trainers Association. Physical therapists professionals started using it in 1997. Dr. Kase finally took approval from Medicare billing code for taping in 2001 (21). Now kinesio taping is most commonly used in sports treatment centers, also physical therapists use it for muscular pain, joint pain and related ailments because it is effective treatment for muscle and joint dysfunction (21).
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Kinesio taping, created by Kenzo Kase, is a specialized thin, elastic tape that can be stretched up to 120% ~ 140% of its original length making it quite elastic compared with the conventional taping (12). According to the Japanese National Kinesio Taping Association, the Kinesio Taping Method is defined as one that enhances the body’s natural healing process and provides support through the muscles (21). Kinesio tape has a physiological mechanism and is effective on soft tissue, muscle, and joint.
Mechanism of kinesio tape method KT%20on%20skin.jpg
The kinesio tape method has a good effect on the human body and most importantly it influences the musculoskeletal system, which makes this method very beneficial for physical therapists. There are many effects for this method. The three main principles that kinesio tape depends on are space, movement and cooling (21). Inflamed muscles are painful and swollen which causes a lack in space. The kinesio taping technique is applied to produce space but also leads to the prospect of improved movement without affecting circulation. This space and movement then allows for cooling of the affected muscles, and in certain cases cryotherapy is used with the tape (21). Another good reason to use this taping is that it acts as a pain relieving agent and, focuses on balancing muscles and enhances the function of the muscle smoothly up to an efficient level. The kinesio tape has physiological mechanisms that give the therapeutic benefits of reducing musculoskeletal disorders. These physiological mechanisms are:
Aligns fascia tissue in its desired place.
Reducing pressure over the lymphatic channels giving a path for the elimination of exudates.
Providing a positional stimulus to the skin.
Lifting the skin over areas of inflammation, edema, and pain.
Increasing stimulation of the mechanoreceptors to either stimulate or limit movement.
The key feature that allows athletes to continue their training and sporting activity with kinesio taping is that it gives muscle support without affecting circulation or range of motion. Now to apply kinesio tape therapists must pre-assess the athlete. (8)
Kinesio taping method training and practice are requiring appropriate assessment. Assessing and evaluation the patient’s condition and looking at both the symptoms, is the only way to provide successful treatment because each individual patient’s condition is different (10, 21). There are certain screening tools that should be used to evaluate the patient, such as manual muscle testing, range of motion testing, gait assessment, and any other orthopedic special tests that the practitioner may deem necessary (10,21). This clinical assessment dictates the specifics of the Kinesio Taping Method application and other possible treatments or modalities (10).There are different applications to apply kinesio tape after pre- applied examination.
Kensio Tape application
The specifics of the Kinesio Taping Method application and other possible treatments depend on the condition of the athlete and patient. The mechanism of kinesio taping method utilizes only “I” strips or modifications in the shape of an “X”, “Y” or extra or new specialized shapes that conform to muscles insertions and origins, or calibrating the direction and quantity of stretch placed on the tape at time of application (21).The application of kinesio taping has hundreds of ways. This ways has the capability to re-educate the neuromuscular system, reduce pain and inflammation, provide support for joint, prevent injury or related injury and encourage good circulation and healing. The applications adapt to sit of injuries (21).sports0_gifts_tape_11_20.jpg
One article that illustrates the effectiveness
kinesio tape effect on forearm extensors on collegiate tennis:
This study shows the effectiveness of kinesio tape on musculatur of the forearm extensors on collegiate tennis athletes. The study takes fourteen participants (8 female and 6 male) who exhibit a 40% to 50% chance of being diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis at some point in their occupation, to determine if kinesio tape used in healthy collegiate tennis athletes is effective at decreasing fatigue by maintaining strength of the forearm extensors, which are frequently related with lateral epicondylitis. The outcomes of this study show that Kinesio Tape, when applied to healthy colligate tennis players, helps to sustain the strength of the forearm extensors. (11)
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Kinesio taping techniques of collegiate tennis:
on this study, The kinesio tape group received the application for lateral epicondylitis of the elbow using black 2 inch (5 cm) Kinesio Tape. The subjects’ forearm was prepared for Kinesio Tape application with alcohol pads. The Kinesio taping Y strip was applied from insertion to origin, to reduce muscle function in acutely over-used muscles, with paper-off tension, which refers to application of the tape directly to the skin from the paper backing. The Kinesio Y strip is made from a single strip of tape with a cut down from middle to produce 2 equal size strips. This application decreases the strain placed on the over-used muscle by assisting with muscle contraction. The base of the Y strip was placed near the region of the radial styloid process with no added tension 0% and rubbed in place to activate glue adhesion. The position of elbow slight flexion with the wrist in neutral was located. (11)
Example of applied kinesio tape
Kinesio taping application for shoulder impingement syndrome:
From Clinical therapeutic applications book by Dr. Kenso Kase, the kinesio taping method were applied (10). The increased space is believed to reduce pressure by lifting the skin. By using the lymphatic correction technique, Kinesio tape decreases the pressure beneath the Kinesio tape strip that acts as channels to direct the exudates to the next-door lymph duct. This technique also works to maintain the scapulothoracic stability by the mechanical correction with applied the kinesio taping to three muscles supraspinatus, deltoideus, and teres minor. Kinsio tape was started with the supraspinatus muscle which generally provides scapular stability and placed the bottom of the strip 3 cm under the greater tubersity of the humerus with no tension with some friction to activate the glue. Next, the patient adducted the shoulder with lateral neck flexion to the opposite side. The remainder of the strip was applied the length of the spinous process of the scapula with some of tension as 15-25% of the full stretch application which is100% with some friction to activate the glue. Then, the new piece of taping was applied to the deltoideus muscle. The base of the Y-shaped strip was located 3 cm under the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus with tension o% with some friction to activate the glue. Both anterior and posterior tails were applied with new pieces of taping light 15-25% tension with some friction to activate the glue. The anterior and posterior tails were positioned along the external borders of the anterior and posterior deltoid muscle with no tension0% with some friction to activate the glue. The new piece of taping was performed on the teres minor muscle. The -I- shape type strip was located on the lower facet of the greater tuberosity of the humerus without any tension 0% with some friction to activate glue. Lastly, the patient should abducted arm and the shoulder should be in horizontal flexion with internal rotation and then placed the remainder of the strip along the axillary border of the scapula with radiance 15-25% tension with some friction to activate glue.(9,10)
kinesio tape, which is specialized tape that is thin, elastic and can be stretched up to 120% ~140% of its original length, making it quite elastic, is one of the effective items used for treatment or prevention of injury for athletes and patients. The following conditions: proprioception in pediatrics (15), patients with acute patellar dislocation (17), stroke (16),different injury in ankle like ankle sprain (18), shoulder pain (7), shoulder impingement syndrome (9), breast cancer related lymphedema (14), care of an infant with gastroesophageal reflux (19),and trunk dysfunction (20), the kinesio tape Deals with it. The Kinesio tape method plays an important role that is affected physiological mechanisms on the site of injure. These physiological mechanisms have a therapeutic benefit to improve muscular skeleton disorder and focus on space, movement and cooling. The specifics of the Kinesio Taping Method application and other possible treatments depended on the condition or the result of pre applied, which is a full assessment of patient condition and athlete condition. The application of kinesio taping has hundreds of ways which “I” strips or modifications in the shape of an “X”, “Y” or or extra can be used, and has the capability to re-educate the neuromuscular system, reduce pain and inflammation, provide support for joint, prevent injury or related injury and encourage good circulation and healing.
Addition with the paper contains a photo display of the overview for kinesio taping method and practical demonstration for neck painâ€¦â€¦10349365-example-of-kinesio-tape-for-neck-pain.jpg
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