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Effect of Health Inequalities

Info: 3414 words (14 pages) Nursing Essay
Published: 11th Feb 2020

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Grace Delavin

What are the contemporary issues in health care and its impact on the national and international healthcare policy? What are the rationale or justification for policy intervention solution to address contemporary health issues in the international issues on education and training, tax benefits and payment to caregivers, respite care and financial support and provision of pension credits for caregiving?


Disparities in ethnic and racial minority in connection to quality health care are prevalent but not extensive. This assessment brings in assessing an analysing the health care disparities and how it impact the health care policy in national and international level in addressing education and training, tax benefits and payments to caregivers, respite care, business regulations combining work and care giving and also financial support and provision credits for care giving. The findings bought about the major impact have on in achieving quality health care services to ethnic and minority people.


The name for health inequalities indicate the population definite distinction in the existence of disease or illness, health issues, nature of health care assistance that prevails from different ethnic class. Inequalities show lack of ability within the health care scheme and thus reports for unneeded cost.

There are lots of factors that accord to ethnic, socioeconomic inequalities, racial as well as lacking approach to health care, low aspect of care, community countenance such as difficulty and violence and also personal attitude. These circumstances are sometimes correlated with not well provided tribal and ethnic minority troops, individuals that experienced monetary difficulty, those people who are living in far flung areas or communities were in medical services is not accessible. And also individuals residing in rural and urban areas that experience health inequalities.

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Even though there are continuing endeavour to lessen health inequalities, tribal and ethnic minority troops inequalities in health still remained. Even when salary, access to care and insurance are accounted for, inequality continue. Poor performance on a scope health gauge such as life expectancy, infant’s death, pervasiveness of diseases or illnesses and insurance scope affirm inequalities between minority troop’s community and their white fellow. For instance, babies born by black mother are 1.5 to 3 times more prone to die than those born by mother of other ethnicities. Cancer is one of the major cause of deaths for more tribal and ethnic minority troops. African American men are more feasible to die from prostate cancer than whites and also Hispanic woman are more likely to die from cancer of the cervix. Indians, African Americans Alaska natives are more likely to have diabetes than whites.

Life Probability and all total health for most Americans had improved for the recent years. Due to the improved target on the advances in medicines and medical technology as well as in the preventive aspects of illnesses. While most of the Americans now are living healthier and longer, still inequalities exist. For most number of tribal and ethnic minority troops attaining good health is hard to achieve because often it is associated with individual’s race, gender and economic status.

Policy makers are answering to these issues through introduction of legislations with the aim of eradicating health inequalities.

Disparities in Access to Healthcare

  1. Evaluate the impact the contemporary issue on national and international healthcare policy in your case study.
  2. Discuss and critically analyse the rationale or justifications for putting into place each of the below listed types of policy intervention solutions globally to address the contemporary health issues
  • education and training
  • tax benefits and payments to caregivers
  • respite care
  • business regulations combining work and care giving
  • tax benefits and payments to caregivers
  1. There are many reasons for disparities in access to healthcare like:

Lack of insurance coverage -Not having health coverage, patients are more inclined to delayed health care, more prone to go not having desired medical care, and more inclined to go not having the prescribed drug. Even if clinicians and policy makers are more familiar of tribal and ethnic minority troops inequalities in the kind of medical care, there is insufficient accord on mediation that should be attempted in reducing such disparities. The most common widely developed action by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) directed towards changing consumer attitude by supporting them to health professionals or doctors for their health screening or analysis. Also the private and public sectors that force to promote the cultural capability of health care providers, develop the ethnic and minority tribal troops’ equality of the health manpower and to gather and supervise data to be use in health services by the tribal and ethnic minority troops. These access are all significant factors in eradicating tribal and minority inequalities in care importantly those who have scope in insurance.

Lack of a regular source of care-Not having an extensive connection in the health care services patients have higher dilemma in achieving quality care. This obstacles in achieving of quality health care services may lead to unexpected health demand, patients may likely to die at an early age and may have a poor health condition. Approach to health care strikes to total mental, social and physical condition, avoidance of disability and diseases, early apprehension and treatment of health status, promote quality of life, avertable death and life expectancy.

Lack of financial resources-This financial obstacle directly alter patient’s welfare. Not able to manage the essential remedy on rising rate of minority people may result in delaying or preceding the recommended medical regimen and are less expected to receive precautionary services or persistent care for chronic health conditions or problems.

Legal barriers-Approach to health care by small earnings migrant minorities can be interfered by legal boundary to public insurance plans. These scope regulation harbor adverse disparities in accessing to quality health care services. And through the unbalanced access to health scopes threaten the well-being and health of migrants.

Structural barriers-These encompasses the area to travel which cover poor access of transportation, the inefficiency in scheduling suitable appointments immediately or during the convenient hours I health care facilities . And the long waiting time spent in the clinic waiting room. These factors affects patient’s strength and eagerness in obtaining the necessary care.

Scarcity of providers-People living in rural areas and society with huge concern of minority populace is having problem in accessing to health care services. This issue can be bound due to the lack of medical care specialists and other needed diagnostic facilities. There is possible solution to this problem by altering the health education scheme so more physicians can be train to choose rural practice.

Linguistic barriers-Differences in language impede approach to health care for minorities that are not efficient and proficient in English. Healthcare system and providers should to be culturally and linguistically capable when giving medical services. Enhanced understanding to the health system, belief and developmental needs of the patients is enforced clearly in order to provide reasonable approach to medical care for distinct populace. Such plan must allow that the health care provider and the tribal patients must bring their individual owned learning languages pattern and culture to their healthcare providers.

Health literacy –Narrowed patients literacy is an obstacle to medical treatment or diagnosis. Patient should know the approach of risk and the possibility in order to make a good decision or choices the treatment and with that to act as a genuine partners in the patient –doctor relationship. Interference of physician and patient may lead in helping to improve health care quality for large populace of patients with has low literacy rate or skills. This issue in health literacy are more obvious than in white people because of educational and socioeconomic factors.

Lack of diversity in the health care workforce-A big reason for inequality in a workforce for accessing quality care are the cultural distinctions especially between white health providers and minority clients or patients. There are factors in determining greater access to diversity in the workforce such as accelerating cultural proficiency and expanding approach to a great health services. In doing it more effectively, health care promoters or providers should have a solid understanding why and how distinct system of beliefs, biases in culture, family structure, ethnic origin and other factors that influence the manner why people struggle illness, observe medical recommendation and react to treatment.

There are ample deposition in New Zealand of compelling disparities in health among ethnic groups, socioeconomic groups and other people residing in distinct regions. According to surveys the populace apt to disparities and circumstances as Pacific, Maori, low income workers who had adversity in achieving health services in times of hours of work, elderly, migrants, rural and those with difficulty or poor in English language skills. The health setup itself afford to health disparities.

In New Zealand, tribal integrity is a significant scope of medical disparities. Pacific people and Maori struggle low life expectancy rate and adverse medical circumstances across morbidity and mortality index compared to Europeans. And also socioeconomic deprivation such as education, housing, income and employment. Disparities in Maori and non-Maori are fascinating in equities in health. The Health status and socioeconomic stands identified three types of distinct tribal disparities. These are the gap, result of the gap and inclination of the gap.

The government is committed in attaining quality of health care services in New Zealand and reducing or eliminating health disparities between groups of population. The Health Ministry have structures action for implementation and developing extensive strategies namely medical and disability backing benefit, economic and social purpose of health such as environmental, behavioural and other material resources. The effect of reaction of ill health on socioeconomic situation and the economic and social eliminating in health.

In comparison with the disparities in international level for example Inequalities in health among European countries is increasing. It is fair increasing that universal approach to medical care is important in creating a balance distribution of medical care. Further action needs in directing the motivation of health-developing the working and living circumstances and policies in supporting clear behaviours in health. Health care kind and opportunity helps explain health inequalities. Barriers to medical care approach includes lack of benefits in insurance, cost in financial care, lack of instruction, geographical inequalities, literacy in health, discrimination, language inequality, socio-cultural assumption in assumption to life and use of care. The present economic situation may lead to increase in health inequalities by decline of social element in health, especially to those who have decreased accomplishments and savings. The loss of employment that will lead to difficult lifestyle and living conditions. Unemployment or career insecurity promote an increased stress level and health detrimental behaviours.

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The European countries is devoted to decreasing disparities in connection medical care and health result. The European states member have formed unified approach associating policies in education, environment and economic development. The European Commission had adopted a policy recently outlining strategic access to address medical disparities. The intention is to give support to the national regional and local government and other agencies to tackle medical disparities more efficiently. These strategies seek to increase awareness about the need to shortened medical inequalities and to contribute a framework for work among countries and stakeholders.

Education and Training. Education and training can help inequalities from among the tribal groups and white people for instance taking care of patients can me be enhance through gathering and reporting significant data on patients education, ethnicity or race can decrease inequality by assimilating cultural analysis or education into the medical professions teaching or trainings, and the research can help in improving the health result through understanding sources of inequalities and encouraging interference. These interventions can lead in eliminating health care inequalities and provide initiative through determining quality development and creating inequalities solution. Like for example in academic medicine in United States had numerous significant roles in the society which includes administering special and health services, providing care for the uninsured and for the poor, cultivating medical professional through education and engaging in research.

Respite Care. Aging population contributes to the increasing demand of medical care and health services with concurrence of greater difficulty of having lifelong diseases and retirements from the workforce. In order to meet the health care needs of the patients the human resource of the department of health promotes a scope of action through grant, payment and other program approach to expand and enhance the essential responsibility or care in the workforce, supporting physicians to indulge and to continue practicing their filed in the primary care, making complete physician’s service, managers, integrating the health workers in the community to health care delivery system, promoting efficient teams or groups of medical professionals and other specialists, strengthening health professionals competencies. These strategies will help diminish inequalities and help improve the health condition of the population and to augment the resources.

Tax benefits and payment to caregivers. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 in the United States rise approach to care, generate more affordable health insurance, enhance Medicare and assure that people have more authority and security that medical or health insurance will be possible whenever needed. This act access to expand medical aid for families or adults that have low earnings. The human and health services in the US is bound for enforcing provisions to widen coverage, prevention, enhance the quality of health care services and patient reaction towards health care settings, assure safety of the patient, improve proficiency and liability and to work across in achieving a high valued health care.

Business regulations combining work and care giving. Proponent of additional reforms recognize that they are lower than choice public approach. Additional reforms cannot be realise in a universal scope, greatly diminish administrative costs. The major advantage claimed for additional reforms is political growth. Minimising the reconstitution of the delivery of health care can promote the political chance of achievement.

Health care regulations will provide high quality care, distinguished care can lead to high health aid. The need to freedom of preferred medical care, that is to control their choices in health care. Cares are affordable and Citisens will share the health benefits of care.

Financial support and provision of pension credits for care giving. On top of inequality lots of employed or poor working individuals who have connection, but can’t manage to pay for occupation insurance. In order to anticipate the event for development it is essential to understand the concepts of insurance. Employer plan are only beneficial to those employee covered with the plan.

For example, in Canada the old age security benefits is important in providing monthly pension once the person reached the required age. This is created in order to provide individual who are not designated to a pension with a yearly compensation during the definitive retirement age. Another plan is the CPP in Canada wherein it provides retirement premium for those that afford to the plan by paid occupation, this plan also grant benefits for disability and other health benefits.

The diversity in caregiving rapport and employment chances is that numbers of reconstitutes may be needed to answer insurance issues or pensions issues in a broad manner.


Health inequalities negatively affect the population who have experienced higher difficulty to health on the ground of their gender identity, religion, racial or ethnic group, age, socioeconomic status, mental health, physical disability, geographical location and other factors that is linked to discrimination. Decreasing inequalities in health will give a chance for everyone to leave an improved and healthy life. Ad in order to achieve this the government must ensure a vita focus on communities that are greater risk. Minimise inequalities in approach to health care quality. Improve the prevention capacity workforce to identify and address inequalities. Support the research in order to identify efficient strategies to reduce inequalities in health. Assimilate and collect data in order to identify and address inequalities. And also the government can use the data in order to identify those population that are the greatest risk and to work with the community in implementing programs and policies that addresses high preferences. Improve collaboration, designation and convenience for inviting leaders in the community in prevention. And enhance privacy guaranteed medical data compilation for population that is underserved to help in improving policies and programs.

For the business owners and employers, they can provide scope in workplace avoidance like precautionary screenings. They can partner with resources in locality like libraries in enhancing employee’s efficiency and to select reliable information’s in health.

For clinicians, insurers they can raise the communication and cultural proficiency of medical providers. Hire and train more competent staff form marginalised ethnic and racial minorities and those people with disabilities. Enhance regulation in quality of care.

For universities and learning centres they can plan research in identifying new efficient policies and program mediation to decrease health inequalities. Established and implement techniques in order to reduce physical, health and conditions in the environment that may affect the absenteeism.

For families they can participate in community achievement. Use the resources in the community to enhance their ability in reading, understanding and using the medical information.


(www.ama-asn.org/resources/doc/ethics/ceja-2a09.pdf, n.d.)

(www.content.healthaffairs.org/content/21/5/90.long, n.d.) (www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx/topicid, n.d.) (www.hhs.gov/strategic-plan/health-workforce.html, n.d.)

(www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071163, n.d.)

(www.rnzcgp.org.nz/assets/documents/standards-policy/health-inequities-position-statement.pdf, n.d.)

(www.surgeongeneral.gov/initiatives/prevention/strategy/elimination-of-helth-disparities.html, n.d.)

(www.uptodate.com/contents/literacy-and-patient-care, n.d.)


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