Ottawa Charter and Jakarta Declaration
Disease prevention focuses on particular efforts intended at decreasing the growth and severity of chronic diseases and other illnesses. As an important part of health growth, health promotion allows people to have control over and make choices to improve their health (Rural Health Information Hub, 2002). There was a public health movement in the year 1986. The Ottawa Charter was response to this public health movement it was the first international conference held that focused on health promotion in developed countries. The Ottawa Charter was the framework of health promotion (World Health Organization, 1986). The Jakarta Declaration is the first international conference for health promotion that was held in a developing country. The Jakarta Declaration was held to develop policies in order to address the tasks of promoting health in the 21st century. This declaration also provided evidence to support the health promotion was effective. Studies have been done around the world that suggest health promotion strategies can change lifestyles and can have a major influence on social, economic, and environmental circumstances that control health (World Health Organization, 1997).
Health is vital for community and economic growth. There were five strategies in the Ottawa Charter that are vital for success. These five strategies include:
- Producing a understanding, healthy environments
- Build up public action
- Construct a strong community course of action
- Personal skills need to be established
- Adjust health services (World Health Organization, 1986)
After the Fourth International Conference, the Jakarta Declaration found clear data that the following are main components for health promotion and are relevant worldwide:
- Health improvement is most effective when approached at a wide-range. The five strategies mentioned above are most effective when combining them.
- Application of the strategies offer useful opportunities.
- In order to endure efforts, participation is vital. Communities have to be at the core of health promotion and be active in the decision making process in order for the strategies to be effective
- Involvement promotes health knowledge. Having the access to vital information is important in accomplishing active contribution and empowerment of individuals and communities (World Health Organization, 1997).
Determinants of Health
What influences how healthy and person is or how unhealthy a person is? This would be the determinants of health. These determinates are categorized under multiple comprehensive areas. These areas include policymaking, social elements, health services, personal behavior, and biology and genetics. The relationships between these influences is what determines a person or communities’ health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).
Any polices that affect a person or communities’ health are made at local, state, and federal levels. Some policies may only effect a small community while some effect entire populations or at federal level (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). An example of a policy effecting a nationwide population is the law just past that persons under the age of 21 can no longer purchase tobacco products. This will reduce the number of the younger population from being able to buy and use tobacco products. Hopefully this will reduce the use in tobacco product in general since the individuals cannot purchase at such a young age.
Social and physical conditions of an environment have an influence on health. These are the social determinants of health. This includes, where and individual may live, work, what school they go to or what age they are (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). An example of a social determinate is safety of the environment of which school and individual attends. This could determine the health or even the outcome of the student’s life. If the student goes to school in and unsafe community it may have an effect health such as stress or depression. If the student grows up in an environment of gang activity, the student may be more likely to join a gang in order to feel safe or protected in that environment. An example of a physical determinate would be air pollution in the environment lived in. This could increase the risk of individuals to have health issues.
Having access the health services and good health services has and impact on health. Limited access to health services may mean an individual may have to go without treatment (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). An example would be not having quality health insurance. If an individual has health insurance with a very high deductible, this may influence them not to get care if they need it due to being unable to pay the deductible. Or if the individual’s insurance company will not pay for certain treatments, it may mean they will not get quality care needed.
The behavior of an individual can have a great effect on one’s health. Health care facilities and promotion works towards influencing individual and population behavior in order to reduce the risk of health problems (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). An example of a behavioral determinant is tobacco use. If an individual uses tobacco on a daily basis, this increased their risk for health problems.
Biology and Genetics
Specific populations have factors that influence their health just by their genetics and biology makeup. There is no way to change these factors or prevent them from affecting one’s health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). An example would be, certain heart diseases such as a bicuspid aortic valve is inherited. An individual is born with this disease.
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Healthy People 2020 have developing strategies to address the determinants of health. To assess needed and existing policies for the impact on health, Health People 2020 use Health Impact Assessments. They have applied a “health in all policies: strategy that introduces health developments for all health gaps as objectives to be public in all parts of the government. Healthy People 2020’s goals are to get rid of preventable illnesses and disparities. They want to improve health in all areas and create healthy social and physical environments. They also want to promote healthy growth and actions in all areas of life (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).
- Rural Health Information Hub. (2002). Defining Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Retrieved from Rural Health Information Hub: https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/1/definition
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010, July 26). Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020. Retrieved from Healthy People 2020: An Opportunity to Address Societal Determinants of Health in the United States: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-of-health
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Determinants of Health. Retrieved from Healthy People 2020: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health
- World Health Organization. (1986). The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Retrieved from World Health Organization[WHO]: https://tlc.trident.edu/d2l/le/content/127823/viewContent/3146267/View
- World Health Organization. (1997). The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century. Retrieved from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/jakarta/declaration/en/
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