Disclaimer: This essay has been written by a student and not our expert nursing writers. View professional sample essays here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this essay are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of NursingAnswers.net. This essay should not be treated as an authoritative source of information when forming medical opinions as information may be inaccurate or out-of-date.

Adverse life events risk factors in self-immolation

Info: 5060 words (20 pages) Nursing Essay
Published: 11th Feb 2020

Reference this


Self-immolation (self-burning) is among the most violent and difficult acts to

understand, 1 and its etiology is as complex and multifaceted as any other suicidal act.

Although self-immolation is rare in high-income countries, 2-6 it is reported with

surprising frequency in many low- and middle-income countries. 7 Iran is among the

countries with the highest rates of self-immolation. In fact, some regions in the west

and south of Iran have the highest documented rates of self-immolation in the world

(22.4 per 100,000 person-years). 10, 11, 12

Women are the main victims of self-immolation in Iran. Suicide by self-burning is the

third leading cause of Years of Life Lost (YLL) through premature death among

women, after disasters and breast cancer. 10, 11 They account for 70% to 96% of all

self-immolation admissions to burn centers in Iran and approximately 80% of these

patients die. 1, 7-12

Subsequently, prevention of self-immolation has become a prominent public health

concern among professionals in Iran. This aim is well suited within suggested steps

for suicide prevention, using a public health approach, which includes a five phase

cycle: 13

  1. Define the problem: surveillance;
  2. Identify the cause: risk and protective factor research;
  3. Develop and test interventions;
  4. Implement interventions; and
  5. Evaluate effectiveness of interventions.

The suicide literature reveals that risk factors of self-immolation differ across

different socio-demographic characteristics, psychological predispositions, psychiatric

disorders, and experience of adverse life events. 1-14 In Iran and most low and middle

income countries, young and adolescent women are over-represented among selfimmolation

cases. 15-28 In high income countries, however, the prevalence of selfimmolation

tends to be among older male individuals. 5, 16, 29-36 In a recent survey in

Iran, adjustment disorders were among the most prevalent psychiatric predisposition

factor 1, 24, 37 whereas, western studies tend to report major depressive disorder,

psychoses, and alcohol and other drug addictions as the most psychiatric condition

related to self-immolation. 16, 38

These risk factors have been reported among a wide range of age groups and types of

suicide victims, including younger individuals (e.g., late adolescents and young

adults), married individuals, school drop-outs, those will low level of literacy, the

unemployed, and housewives. 1, 7-12, 14, 19-22, 24, 28, 37, 39, 40- 45

Data on history of adverse life events among victims of self-immolation is sparse.

Among suicide victims more broadly, however, there is a pattern of high numbers of

adverse life events prior to the suicide attempt. Such events include unplanned

pregnancy, homelessness, financial hardship, relationship problems with friends,

and/or loved ones/spouses, academic problems and/or failures, work-related anxiety, a

personal history of suicide attempts, a family history of suicide attempts, diagnosed

mental disorders, and/or malignant disease. 46-55

This study aimed to investigate role of adverse life events in presentation of selfimmolation

among patients admitted to regional Burn Centre at Imam Khomeini

Hospital (BC-IKH) in Kermanshah province, in Iran.

Nearly all currently available data on self-immolation in the world is descriptive,

limiting one’s ability to establish any relationship between variables of interest.1-37, 39-

45 We therefore implemented a case-control design so that we could examine potential

associations between variables of interest.



Adult patients, both male and female, age 18 and older who either confessed to

deliberate self-burning or were reported to have done so by a reliable witness, and

were admitted to the BC-IKH were eligible to be enrolled in the study. Patients whose

suicide seemed suspicious (i.e., those who denied suicidal intent and for whom there

were no corroborating witnesses or data) were excluded. Thirty consecutive patients

who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled in this study.

The control group was recruited from the community and was matched by living areas

(district-county, rural/urban), gender, and age. All three of those demographic

characteristics are risk factors for self-immolation, so control of them was deemed

important 1, 7-12, 14, 19, 21, 24, 28, 37, 39, 42, 45 All the participants gave their informed consent

to participation in this study.


A trained clinical psychologist interviewed all enrolled patients within the first 24

hours of admission to the Burn Center to administer Adverse Life Event

questionnaire. With the exception of three patients (cases) who had severe burn

(defined as greater than 90% Total Body Surface Areas (TBSA)) self-reported data

were collected. In cases with high TBSA, the questionnaire was completed by the

patients’ spouses or parents.

The Adverse Life Events questionnaire was created for this study. It included 16

dichotomized items ranging from unplanned pregnancy to having inability and

malignant disease with the response categories; “Yes = 1”, and “No = 0” (See Table

1). Most items in the questionnaire are standard items for such measures. We also

included two items that previously have not been evaluated in suicide research but

play an important sociocultural role in Iran’s society, infertility and compulsory

marriage. 46-58

All protocols were approved by the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences,

Local Research Ethics Committee.

Analytical method:

Data analyses proceed in two steps. First, we examined descriptive statistics for all

items in the Adverse Life Events questionnaire, for both the case and control

groups. Second, chi-square was used to estimate differences and, where appropriate,

the strength of the difference, between the outcome variable (self-immolation) and

the risk factor (items in the Adverse Life Event questionnaire) across each group.

We use a p-value ≤ 0.10 to identify trends and a p-value ≤ 0.05 and 95% CI to

identify significant differences.


Table 2 shows the results of chi square analysis. Three variables emerged as having

statistically significant differences between the two groups. Financial hardship (x2 =

5.41, p = 0.02; OR = 3.45; CI = 1.19-9.90), an intimate relationship break-up (x2 =

9.02, p = 0.003; OR = 5.45; CI = 1.20-11.99), and individual history of suicide

attempts (x2 = 6.67; p = 0.01; OR = 7.00; CI = 1.38-35.48). Comparisons of other

variables were not statistically significant.


The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between adverse

life events and self-immolation among a sample of patients admitted to a regional

burn center in Iran. Numerous studies indicate adverse life events play an important

role in suicidal attempts and death, 46-56 but very few studies use elegant research

designs such as case-control research to reach these conclusions; most data were

collected in developed countries; 38, 57, 58 and few address self-immolation in particular

as a suicide technique. In fact, we were unable to locate any previous case-control

studies examining the impact of adverse life events on self-immolation among

patients in Iran or any other low- or middle-income country.

Findings from the present study suggest financial hardship, break-up of an intimate

relationship, and an individual history of suicide attempts are significant risk factors

for self-immolation. This finding is in line with existing suicide literature. Sunnqvist

et al., 48 for example, studied the role of stressful life events and biological stress

markers in suicide attempts among former adolescent psychiatric inpatients. They

found that patients who reported sexual abuse during childhood and feelings of

neglect during childhood had significantly higher levels of CSF-MHPG

(cerebrospinal fluid and Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycole) and U-NA/A than those

who had not. In another study, Palacio et al. 49 used a case-control design with 108

adult suicide attempters and 108 controls matched for age and gender. Those who

reported adverse life events in the last six months, who had a family history of

suicide, who were amidst a major depressive episode, and or who expressed a wish to

die, had higher risk of suicide.

Another study, by Zhang et al., 50 used a matched case-control group of 215 suicide

attempters with major depression (92 male, 123 female). Hopelessness, negative lifeevents,

and family history of suicide were risk factors of attempted suicide. Renaud et

al. 51 confirmed the existence of a particular clinical profile of children and

improved understanding of the interrelationships between stressors in youth suicidal

behavior. In a study of 300 adolescent aged from 14 to 19 years. Marczyńska-

Wdówik, 52 found that suicide attempters and adolescents with suicidal ideation had

poor social support from parents and experienced more stressful situations and family

and school problems which were perceived difficult to solve.

Way et al., 53 reviewed the mental health records of all 76 suicides that occurred

between 1993 and 2001 in New York State Department of Correctional Services

prisons and that had some contact with mental health services during their

incarceration. He found common stressors preceding the suicide were inmate-toinmate

conflict, recent disciplinary action, fear, physical illness, and adverse life

events such as loss of good time or disruption of family/friendship relationships in the

community. Finally, Chiou et al. 54 demonstrated that the most common precipitating

characteristics among adolescent suicide attempters who were admitted to an acute

psychiatric ward in Taiwan were school stress, parent-child conflict, and

psychopathology, including feelings of hopelessness, psychotic symptoms, substance

abuse, or panic symptoms.

Prevention strategies

Results of this study support previous findings that self-immolation involves a

complex mix of intrapsychic, interpersonal, and environmental risk factors, including

adverse life events. Culturally sensitive interventions should be developed to target atrisk

individuals and communities for self-immolation prevention. These interventions

could develop out of community participatory research to involve key community

members and their inputs. It could focus on community outreach activities such as

media campaigns, or school-based interventions to reach adolescent population.

Local community-action groups and nongovernment organizations are also important

entities for self-immolation prevention activities. Interventions aimed at improving

mental health through cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal therapy strategies have

also shown to reduce the likelihood of suicide in other cultures 1 and are likely to be

helpful in preventing suicide by self-immolation in Iran.

Limitations and Future Directions

This study offers several strengths. Most prominently, it is among the first studies to

use a case-control design to examine risk factors associated with self-immolation.

Further, it was conducted in a region with self-immolation rate that are among the

highest in the world. Nonetheless, case-control studies have some inherent limitations.

One pertains to the issue of properly matching subjects between the case and control

groups. In this study the control group was selected from the same community and

matched by age and gender to consecutive-referral cases to obtain accurate matching.

It is unknown if other demographic factors, such as income, may have varied across

the groups. Another limitation of the study concerns generalizability. The sample for

this study was recruited from one region of Iran, and therefore results cannot

necessarily be generalized to other parts of Iran or to other nations. We view this work

to be a pilot study from which further investigation is warranted.

In Iran and much of the world, suicide is stigmatized and condemned for religious or

cultural reasons. In some countries, suicidal behavior is a criminal offence punishable

by law.1 Therefore, for various reasons, suicide often is a secretive act that is

deliberately hidden and considered taboo. Identification of at-risk populations, which

this manuscript contributes to, will provide valuable information for targeted

treatment and prevention programs. As discussed in the introduction, future work

should begin to move toward treatment and prevention programs.13


The results of this study suggest financial hardship, break-up of an intimate

relationship, and an individual history of suicide attempts are risk factors for selfimmolation.

Other variables, including unplanned pregnancy, homelessness, financial

hardship, relationship problems with friends, and/or loved ones/spouses, academic

problems and/or failures, work related anxiety, personal history of suicide attempts,

family history of suicide attempts, diagnosed mental disorders, and malignant disease,

did not play a role as individually protective or risk factors for self-immolation.

Intervention strategies to prevent life adverse events and educate at-risk individuals

about problem-solving approaches and coping skills should be developed and



The authors would like to thank all people who participated in this study.

Ethical approval:

All protocols were approved by the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences,

Local Research Ethics Committee.


Financial support of this study was provided by Kermanshah University of Medical


Competing interests

None declared.


1. Ahmadi A. Suicide by self-immolation: comprehensive overview, experiences, and

suggestions. J Burn Care Res 2007;28(1):30-41.

2. O’Donoghue JM, Panchal JL, O’Sullivan ST, O’Shaughnessy M, O’Connor TP,

Keeley H, et al. A study of suicide and attempted suicide by self-immolation in an

Irish psychiatric population: an increasing problem. Burns 1998;24(2):144-6.

3. Cave Bondi G, Cipolloni L, Parroni E, Cecchi R. A review of suicides by burning

in Rome between 1947-1997 examined by the Pathology Department of the

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza.’ Burns 2001


4. Rothschild MA, Raatschen HJ, Schneider V. Suicide by self-immolation in Berlin

from 1990 to 2000. Forensic Sci Int 2001;124:163-6. 23.

5. Shkrum MJ, Johnston KA. Fire and suicide: a three-year study of self-immolation

deaths. J Forensic Sci 1992;37:208-21.

6. Thombs BD, Bresnick MG, Russell GM. Who attempts suicide by burning? An

analysis of age patterns of mortality by self-inflicted burning in the United States.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2007;29:244-50.

7. Rezaeian M, Sharifi G. Self-immolation is the most important way for suicide in

Eilam province (a survey from 1996 to 2003). J Andishe va Rafter 2004;21:289.

8. Ahmadi A. Frequency of self-immolation in attempted suicide patients in West

Islam Abad city (1997-2003). J Behbood 2005;9(1):26-37 [in Farsi].

9. Heydari PA. Psychosocial situations of suicidal attempts in Hamedan. Andisheh va

Raftar 1997;1(2):19-31 [in Farsi].

10. Naghavi M. The mien of mortality and morbidity in 23 provinces of Iran. Tehran:

Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education; 2005 (Tir 1384).

11. Ahmadi A, Mohammadi R, Stavrinos D, Almasi A, Schwebel DC. Self-

Immolation in Iran. J Burn Care Res. 2008 May/June;29(3):451-460

12. Saadat M, Bahaoddini A, Mohabatkar H, Noemani K.High incidence of suicide by

burning in Masjid-i-Sulaiman (southwest of Iran), a polluted area with natural

sour gas leakage. Burns. 2004 Dec;30(8):829-32.

13. U.S. Surgeon General. National strategy for suicide prevention: goals and

objectives for action. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services, Public Health Service; 2001.

14. Ahmadi A, Ytterstad B. Prevention of self-immolation by community-based

intervention. Burns. 2007 Dec;33(8):1032-40.

15. Onarheim H, Vindenes HA. High risk for accidental death in previously burninjured

adults. Burns. 2005 May;31(3):297-301.

16. Palmu R, Isometsä E, Suominen K, Vuola J, Leppävuori A, Lönnqvist J. Selfinflicted

burns: an eight year retrospective study in Finland.Burns. 2004


17. Mzezewa S, Jonsson K, Aberg M, Salemark L. A Prospective study on the

epidemiology of burns in patients admitted to the Harare burn units. Burns. 1999


18. Lester D, Wilson C.Adolescence. Teenage suicide in Zimbabwe. 1990


19. Maghsoudi H, Garadagi A, Jafary GA, Azarmir G, Aali N, Karimian B, Tabrizi

M. Women victims of self-inflicted burns in Tabriz, Iran. Burns. 2004


20. Laloë V.Women victims of self-inflicted burns. Burns. 2004 May;30(3):217-20.

21. Maghsoudi H, Samnia R, Garadaghi A, Kianvar H. Burns in pregnancy.Burns.

2006 Mar;32(2):246-50.

22. Laloë V, Ganesan M. Self-immolation a common suicidal behaviour in eastern Sri

Lanka.Burns. 2002 Aug;28(5):475-80.

23. Laloë V. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in a general hospital of Eastern Sri

Lanka. Burns. 2002 Dec;28(8):778-81.

24. Zarghami M, Khalilian A. Deliberate self-burning in Mazandaran, Iran. Burns


25. Meir PB, Sagi A, Ben Yakar Y, Rosenberg L. Suicide attempts by selfimmolation—

our experience. Burns 1990;16(4): 257-8.

26. Wagle SA, Wagle AC, Apte JS. Patients with suicide burns and accidental burn: a

comparative study of sociodemographic profile in India. Burns 1999;25:158-61.

27. Lari AR, Panjeshahin MR, Talei AR, Rossignol AM, Alaghehbandan R.

Epidemiology of childhood burn injuries in Fars province, Iran. J Burn Care

Rehabil 2002;23(1):39-45.

28. Saadat M. Epidemiology and mortality of hospitalized burn patients in Kohkiluye

va Boyerahmad province (Iran): 2002-2004. Burns 2005;31(3):306-9.

29. Cameron DR, Pegg SP, Muller M. Self-inflicted burns. Burns 1997;23:519-21.

30. Parks JG, Noguchi TT, Klatt EC. The epidemiology of fatal burn injuries. J Foren

Sci 1989;34:399-406.

31. Squyres V, Law EJ, Still JM. Self-inflicted burns. J Burn Care Rehab


32. Haberal M, Oner L, Golay K, Bayraktar U, Bilgin N. Suicide attempted by

burning. Ann MBC 1989;2:12-4.

33. Prosser D. Suicides by burning in England and Wales. Br J Psychiat


34. Ashton JR, Donnan S. Suicide by burning, an epidemiologic phenomenon: an

analysis of 82 deaths and inquests in England and Wales in 1978-1979. Psychol

Med 1981;11: 735-9.

35. Davidson TI, Brown LC. Self-inflicted burns: a 5 years retrospective study. Burns


36. Scully JH, Hutcherson R. Suicide by burning. Am J Psychiat 1983;140:905-6.

37. Hassanzadeh SM, Mosavi SG. An Investigation about self-immolation[in Farsi].

In: 2nd Annual Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology Congress, Tehran, Iran, May

24-26, 1994.

38. Pham TN, King JR, Palmieri TL, Greenhalgh DG. Predisposing factors for selfinflicted

burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 2003;24:223-7.

39. Dibii A, Gharebayhi R. Study of Suicidal Burns in Ahwaz, Iran [in Farsi]. J Legal

Med Org I.R.I 2000;19:5-10.

40. Sheth H, Dziewulski P, Settle JA. Self-inflicted burns: a common way of suicide

in the Asian population. A 10-year retrospective study. Burns 1994;20:334-5.

41. Singh B, Ganeson D, Chattopadhyay PK. Pattern of suicides in Delhi: a study of

the cases reported at the police morgue. Delhi Med Sci Law 1982;22:195-8.

42. Lari AR, Alaghehbandan R. Epidemiological study of self-inflicted burns in

Tehran, Iran. J Burn Care Rehabil 2003; 24:15-20.

43. Kumar V. Burnt wives-a study of suicides. Burns 2003 Feb; 29:31-5.

44. Sakhare S. Analytical study of 1200 suspicious deaths of newly married women in

Vidharbha region of Maharashtra state in India. In: Proceedings of the Womens’

Decade World Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 1985.

45. Panjeshahin MR, Lari AR, Talei AR, Shamsnia J, Alaghehbandan R.

Epidemiology and mortality of burns in South West of Iran. Burns 2001;27:219-


46. Donald M, Dower J, Correa-Velez I, Jones M. Risk and protective factors for

medically serious suicide attempts: a comparison of hospital-based with

population-based samples of young adults. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006


47. Heppner P, Petersen C. The development and implications of a Personal Problem-

Solving Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1982; 29:66-75.

48. Sunnqvist C, Westrin A, Träskman-Bendz L. Suicide attempters: biological

stressmarkers and adverse life events. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008

Jun 20..

49. Palacio C, García J, Diago J, Zapata C, Lopez G, Ortiz J, Lopez M.Identification

of suicide risk factors in Medellín, Colombia: a case-control study of

psychological autopsy in a developing country. Arch Suicide Res.


50. Zhang YQ, Yuan GZ, Li GL, Yao JJ, Cheng ZH, Chu X, Liu CJ, Liu QH, Wang

AR, Shi GZ, Wang BH, Cheng YR, Zhang ML, Li K. [A case-control study on the

risk factors for attempted suicide in patients with major depression]. Zhonghua

Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;28(2):131-5.

51. Renaud J, Berlim MT, McGirr A, Tousignant M, Turecki G. Current psychiatric

morbidity, aggression/impulsivity, and personality dimensions in child and

adolescent suicide: a case-control study.J Affect Disord. 2008 Jan;105(1-3):221-8.

52. Marczyńska-Wdówik AM. [Selected coping resources and critical situations as the

risk factors of adolescent’s suicide attempts]. Wiad Lek. 2002;55 Suppl 1(Pt


53. Way BB, Miraglia R, Sawyer DA, Beer R, Eddy J. Factors related to suicide in

New York state prisons. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2005 May-Jun;28(3):207-21.

54. Chiou PN, Chen YS, Lee YC. Characteristics of adolescent suicide attempters

admitted to an acute psychiatric ward in Taiwan. J Chin Med Assoc. 2006


55. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, editors. Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of

psychiatry. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams& Wilkins; 2000.

56. Roy A. Psychiatric emergencies. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, editors. Kaplan &

Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams&

Wilkins; 2000. p. 2035-39.

57. Horner BM, Ahmadi H, Mulholland R, Myers SR, Catalan J. Case-controlled

study of patients with self-inflicted burns. Burns 2005;31:471-5.

58. Mulholland R, Green L, Longstaff C, Horner B, Ross E, Myers S, Catalan J.

Deliberate self-harm by burning: A retrospective case controlled study. J Burn

Care Res 2008 Jul-Aug;29(4):644-9.

Table 1. Measures of adverse life events risk factors

· unplanned pregnancy(yes vs. no)

· infertility(yes vs. no)

· homelessness(yes vs. no)

· financial hardship(yes vs. no)

· problems with friends(yes vs. no)

· a relationship break-up (with love or spouse) (yes vs. no)

· school or university failure(yes vs. no)

· anxiety about school/university performance(yes vs. no)

· problems at work(yes vs. no)

· compulsory marriage(yes vs. no)

· individual history of suicide attempts(yes vs. no)

· sibling or parents history of suicide attempts(yes vs. no)

· individual history of mental disorders(yes vs. no)

· having inability and malignant disease(yes vs. no)

Table 2. Demographic data of case (n=30) and control (n=30) groups






Gender; N (%)


4 (13)

4 (13)

8 (13)





Marital state; N (%)


12 (40)











Mean of age;(year)




Mean of TBSA*; (%)


* Total Body Surface Area

Table 3. Differences  between self-immolation and variables (cases n =30; controls n=30)


p-value a

Odds Ratio

95% CI

Unplanned pregnancy




















Financial hardship





Problems with friends





A relationship break-up (with love or spouse)





School or university failure





Anxiety about school/university performance





Problems at work





Compulsory marriage





Individual history of suicide attempts





Sibling or parents history of suicide attempts





Individual history of mental disorders





Having inability and malignant disease





a.  Fisher’s exact test is used when N<5 


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the NursingAnswers.net website then please: