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Epidemiology of Drug Misuse

Info: 3003 words (12 pages) Nursing Assignment
Published: 12th May 2020

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Tagged: drug misuseepidemiology

This assignment is going to focus on drug misuse according to Goldberg(2018)’ being addicted is not only cocaine or other illegal drugs but it can be prescribed drugs like tramadol painkillers’ by the doctor meaning an individual will take extra required dose that has been prescribed for an individual thus abusing substance. Epidemiology is going to be looked at comparing global, national and my local area Blackpool its trends in illness and diseases. Furthermore, will examine how the current social determinates which are Education, Environment and Gender play a role on an individual why they end up in misusing drugs and to see if its modifiable or non-modifiable health and well-being in relation to global, national and local trends. Statistics are going to be used to demonstrate evidence based underpinning how its seen in health and wellbeing. In addition Maslow theory and Dahlgren- Whitehead(1991) rainbow theory will be discussed for instance few sources are used such as National Health Service( NHS),NICE guidelines, Office for National Statistics (ONS), Department of Health (DH),World Health Organisation ( WHO) this is to see the statistics and compare how the trends of healthcare  drug misuse has taken its course in local area Blackpool, globally and national this has develop to be a public health problem.

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Epidemiology is when an outbreak relating to health occur and it became uncontrollable and affects a large population and it became a public health issue cited in Kiess et al (2018)  define epidemiology ‘deals with diseases social demographics in population’ .National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) ‘740 billion annually in cost relate crime, unemployment and healthcare cost’ .looking at the global World Health Organisation(2018) the prevalence its higher its increases 10 years from now’.Swedish citizen ’23,3 percent of the population discharged from hospital due to substance abuse’ Fazel (2004).

National prevalence on drug misuse states National statistics cited in NHS digital(2018) ‘1 in 12 (8.5 percent) adults aged 16-59 are on illicit drugs ‘on the local level in Blackpool has 1950 opiate crack abusers aged 15-65 prevalence is higher than of the national average at double level calculated by Public Health England (PHE) . Mortality are the deaths rates and morbidity looking at the Maslow theory of needs once an individual is abusing substances the impact affect their daily life  WHO (2019) , Fischer at el (2013) on the global level  deaths rates increased in Ontario and two British Columbia due to the environment within’

Locally in Blackpool council  ’ life expectancy has become lower in the country at 74,3 years for men and for women 80.1 years’ due to substance abuse this is the result that men keep quite they do not seek help earlier enough than women are more likely to open up and seek help so they can live longer. Drug misuse affects the families, communities and government health sector diseases such as brain damage, long term sickness this article outlines Torres et al (2016) ‘cognitive escape, sensation seeking, sexual risk behaviour contacting HIV infection this drugs control your life that even the thinking is biased. Aetiology is understanding the root cause which influence the misuse of drugs and decision making ma Tones(1987). Blackpool is one of the hot spots because its holiday resort and the attraction of different cultural minorities cultures.

Social determinants(SD) are things which are not medical but influences an individual in becoming a drug misuse affect health Lancet(2015).Three (SD) Education ,Employment and environment. This shapes the ones health within socioeconomic status  audience you entertain and hang around with according to the rainbow theory Dahlgren-Whitehead(1991)cited in Bonner(2018) low socio-economic classes have poorer health and are more likely to use abuse drugs which lead to chronic stress ,brain damage and long term various of illness resulting in negative impact on their mental health and immune responses. Lack to education highlighted by Wilson and Kolander(2003) one needs to want to learn and understand drug abuse prevention because if given information like leaflets they do not know how to read then they won’t have an idea or know the risk it has on health so education is a powerful tool. This is mainly seen in children raised in low income families mainly those working for long hours with low wages experience less supervision and care which can be conducive to the development of drug abuse Blackpool council (2018).

Environment can be modifiable were an individual can relocate to another area which has less influential  but it can be argued that its non-modifiable in the case that  if an individual  on low-income  can not afford . It is essential to maintain such needs, as Maslow’s hierarchy (1943) outlines the criteria to achieve self-actualisation. Thus, local support groups aim to provide therapy to promote self-help and independence to choose the right treatment. This meets the NICE Guidelines (2007), WHO (2018) they provide provisions to motivate  change behaviour and a person’s outlook and being mindful of the risks of drug abuse does to health.

Looking at the evidence- based provided by the Department of Health(2018) treatments provided for substance abuse has shown that people do recover when provided with evidence which support  them to road to recovery which include behavioural therapies and medication assisted treatments. Implementations of evidence-based prevention programs have shown positive outcomes because its addressed locally in Blackpool support groups  which include the national policies . Drug strategy July (2017), this tries to minimise illegal supplying and promote recovery other professional such as nurses, doctors, health visitors and support workers both universally and nation-wide; to tackle drug abuse/

Prevention programmes has shown good results in lowering use of  drug abuse this issue is addressed and put to be part of the health agenda  to promote  recovery. Prevention programs which are locally available for support and information in Blackpool such as Horizon, Health and well-being strategy (2016-19) the community use to support and educate the risk that comes with drug misuse different types of behavioural related issues. Positive outlook in tackle crime rates, improve mental health psychoactive substance Act (2016) were it’s a criminal offence to supply and they aim to shut down website and shops which they call ’legal highs’. The government on ‘white paper’ on drug abuse it a bill they put in petition of an issue   for instance cited et al (2005) government influence can bring negative if not agreed or not having enough evidence.

The mortality and the morbidity rates of the national and local regions, according to (Office for National Statistics, 2017) outline that the ‘rates of drug misuse in England were highest in the three northern regions: North East, North West and Yorkshire and The Humber with 83.2, 64.7 and 54.5 deaths per one million population’. This shows that on the national level, the most affected areas are the North-west, this is possible due to social-economic status, low income and unemployment.  This impacts the levels of crime in the local areas too. For instance, Blackpool is affected mostly because it is a holiday resort whereas Clitheroe is a local area wherein drug misuse is covert due to the maintenance of their social status or class.

The global, national and local trends in drug abuse emerge in an individual, as the symptoms of the diseases is costing some people permanent damage, to the point where their life is at risk. Families are affected, as the structure of the nuclear unit breaks down, thus resulting in aetiology, for example physical deterioration and financial instability. The local statistics of Blackpool has an ‘admission rate of 61 per 100,000 population admitted for drug related mental and behavioural disorder during 2017/18’, (NHS Digital, 2018). In comparison to the national statistics, the admissions are higher in Blackpool due to the nature of the environment

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National policy for care of drugs used in general practice has experience series of changes in recent years and continuing to evolve (Beaumont,2004). Drugs misuse and dependence UK Guidelines On Clinical Management (2007) studies consistently shows that the UK (Scotland and England it is among the highest rates of recorded illegal drug misuse in the western world. However drug treatment provision in the UK has seen a rapid expansion in providing assistance to drug misuses.Uk Guideline Clinical Management (2007) continues to highlight that adult drug misuses are treatment in the Uk reporters opiate that drugs is their main problem primarily heroin. This view can be argued in the light of increasing drug use by societal model such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston Amy Winehouse, George Michael who influence society standards as above maintained. Drug uses  have a range of health problems it affects for instance ‘ the brain and body, statistics and trends, and relevant publications and articles written by National Institute In Drug Abuse( NIDA).Evidently Office for National Statistics(ONS) ‘highest mortality rate from drug misuse was in the North East with 77.4 deaths per 1 million population, a 13% increase from 2015; the lowest rate (29.1 deaths per 1 million population) was in the East Midlands’  this is costing the NHS and social care problems which or may not be associated with drug misuse although drug misuse is most talked about  when well known individual die such as those above . Drug use exist also in areas caused by poverty, which poor health  can be caused by homeless, mental health and so on. For example the north west area of England places such as Manchester metropolitan Blackpool, Burnely, Accrington, Rochdale and Liverpool are well known for drug misuse. NHS statistics on drugs misuse England (2018) states that ‘hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of drug related mental and behavioural disorders was highest in the north west with the highest rate of admissions per 100,000 population for males and females at 314 and 138 respectively’.( Beaumont,2004) allude to the view that the harm caused by these problems affects not only individual drug uses but also  their families and friends and the communities within which they live, weather or not they are acquainted with the drug taker concerned.

Drug abuse deaths involving illegal drugs is also on the rise just as stated before in economically undeprived areas and communities like my area Blackpool. These deaths happens in variety of conditions with different social policy, political implications in whic

LO1Approaches to health and wellbeing is advocated by (NHS) work together with the Borough of Lancashire County Council in Blackpool as well as independent private sectors who follow  guidelines and process to support  individual affected by abusing drugs including their families. Drug abuse has become a Public Health issue so it has become issue they have to  look into on a  national level were they have to work  in collaboration with other agencies from all over England in whole  to tackle this drug misuse as a public health issue. They are policies  and government documents similar to this Drug abuse we have the  (NICE) guidelines offers a tool to help drugs misusers approach services of interventions  by Department of Health (2007) namely ‘psychosocial components of treatment and pharmacological interventions’. Psychosocial approaches include counselling and key working as a basic coping mechanism this help them to create a therapeutic relationship were (Videbeck,2006)noted that having Therapeutic is important with the drug users in the road of their recovery to be able to communicate listening skills this will form trust and it serves high chances of treatment and success . Whitehead citied in Beaumont (2010) state “counselling is a systematic process which gives individuals an opportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more resourcefully with a greater sense of well-being counselling may be concerned with addressing and resolving specific problems, making designs, coping with crises, working through conflict or improving relationships with others’ (British associations of counselling psychotherapy -code of practice professional conduct). This supports the evidence and models of psychosocial interventions advanced by the nice guidelines. These evidence and models include drug-related advice. Drug-related advice and information is were keywords support patients giving them advice and information about the drug misuse, its dangers and treatment available according to (drug misuse and dependence: uk guidelines on clinical management) (2007).To make informed decisions about the treatment goals and which type of support would suit their needs

The same approach is supported by the Department Of Health (DH 2010) produced guidelines for therapy which is therapeutic within the (NHS) they collaborate with psychiatric service and other organisation. According to Beaumount (2010)” treatment choice in psychological the therapy and advising promotes the value of talking therapies and promotes chosen therapies for particular problems another approach which is being used at national and local providers is motivational interviewing and other motivational enhancement techniques include a motivational enhancement techniques include a collection of therapeutic principles such as counselling techniques and more generally, a style of interaction in which my  local Blackpool they have support group within the community which takes the position of a collaborative partner in discussion with patient about their drug use which is called AA. This means that for example in the support groups may use a set of 12 steps to recovery which is self analysing spiritally,mentally and physically were individals are able to share their struggles with addiction, how are they coping to recovery skills, such as asking open question listening and summarising the ideas the group has expressed. Pharmacological interventions invdves prescribed drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine taken under GP advice

In conclusion drug misuse has an impact on a person and their families or groups of people, it is clear that global, national and local influences the behaviour, mentality and social- economic have impact on how an individual enviroment. This increases as mortality rates rise. Therefore, by attempting to minimise the cost, treatment is costing the NHS more. Globally, the media influences groups as the expose of drug misuse highlight the issues and risk that affect the physical and mental well being of individuals. Prejudice and misinformation contrary to scientific advances in the field of substance abuse negatively impact the development of preventive and early treatment programmes. Research has shown that effectiveness of prevention, control and treatment of drug abuse in direct ratio to the degree of public understanding and acceptance.

Reference List

  1. Addiction research – drug abuse; new drug abuse findings reported from Peking university (monitoring of regional drug abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology-A critical review). (2018, Mar 31). Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week Retrieved from  https://search.proquest.com/docview/2016626421?accountid=17233
  2. Bonner,A (2018) Social determinants of health An inter disciplinary approach to social inequality and well-being// Published Policy Press Uk.
  3. Department of Health (2018) www.gov.dh.com
  4. Goldberg, J ( 2018) What is Drug Addiction WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed  feb 05 2018.
  5. Gregg.M,(2002) 2nd Edition Field Epidemiology.Published by Oxford University Press Inc New York.
  6. Tones.K (1987) Devising stragies for preventing drug misuse:the role of the Health Action Model,Health Education Research,volume 2,issue 4,December 1987,pages 305-317,https//doi.org/10.1093/her/2.4.305
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  8. Lowinson.J,Ruiz.P,Millman.R ,Langrod.J (2005) 4th Edition Substance Abuse A Comprehensive Textbook Published Lippicott William wilkins USA. )
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  10. National Institute On Drug Abuse www.drugabuse.gov
  11. National Statistics. (2018) Statistics on drug misuse. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/luica/Downloads/NHS-Digital-Statistics-on-Drugs-Misuse-England-2018.pdf .Office 12)National Statistics (2019)
  12. Mercille, J. (2014). The Media-Entertainment Industry and the “War on Drugs” in Mexico. Latin American Perspectives, 41(2), 110-129. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24575501. https://democracy.blackpool.gov.uk/documents/s27996/Appendix%206a%20Drug%20Strategy%202017-20%20Version%206%20October%202017.pdf
  13. 15)Videbeck.L,(2006) Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing 3rd Edition .Published Lippincott Williams and Wilkins a Wolters Kluwer Company Uk.
  14. 16)Wilson.R, Kolander.C (2003) Drug Abuse Prevention A School and Community Partnership.Published Jones and Barlett
  15. 17)World Health Organization (WHO, 2008) Guidelines For The Psychosocially Assisted Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Dependence Geneva.
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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution, patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare

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