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Social care and health is no longer just rendering a set of action or carrying out a duty to people but more about working together to enable them to make informed decision, even giving necessary and adequate support requires at all times when it is necessary to do certain task on their behalf they still remain joint decision maker and co-partner in achieving the core objectives of supporting, caring, and helping people to runs their lives.
In other to achieve these objectives, organisation will need to ensure best practice in terms of core principles of care, policies and theories and of course understand the development and implementation principles and values. All these elements and several questions will be examined and recommendations as regard best practice will be suggested when conclusion is drawn.
1.1 Explain ways in which core principles of care are applied in practice
The standard of delivery in every health care service provider is expected to be high and qualitative. Proper protection to ensure the safety of the customer is paramount, as a result of rise in demand for social care service, the support system principles must be applied effectively to ensure good service delivery to customers.
Some of the basic ways of applying these core support and care principles are;
- Aspect of human dignity, this can be applicable by respecting their wishes and not imposing any personal will unduly but by allowing them to make informed decision without compromising ethical standard.
- By sympathising with them, in trying to show empathy towards their personal feelings to pacify them.
- Safety is everything, ensuring their safety is always guaranteed without any compromise.
- Managing and minimising risk reasonably in a way their lives will not be put in danger or jeopardise their personal interest.
- Also, the principle of honesty and best practice application among others will enable all service providers to comply fully in accordance with the rules and values guiding social care and health support service as observed by (Alcolk, Daly and Griggs, 2008)
1.2 Analyse the concept of a person-centred approach in relation to health and social provision
The concept of a person-centred model is widely practised in the UK. This approach is based on Carl Rogers theory, which centred on protection of customers personal rights and taking decision in a manner that is completely favour any decision taking for or on behalf of them. (Moon 2008)
The person-centred approach has the capacity to enhance customer satisfaction and the tendency to meet the need of customers from diverse multicultural and religious group. The inclusive nature of the concept is one of the key values that makes it expedient to customers. It will also help service provider in social health and care to dispense service effectively based on individual need and requirement without undermining their ethnic diversities.
1.3 Explain How service users and employees are protected from harm
Both service users and employees deserve to be protected even though the core responsibility of health care professionals is to protect the interest and safety of the customers. However, this interest often conflicted and when this is the case the provider must take a decisive measure to protect the vulnerable patient in the interest of professionalism.
Take for example, a patient suffering from Alzheimer will put the service provider under an ethical dilemma, whether transit straps are to be used to prevent the customer from falling or not, while the customer’s dignity and right is conflicting with best practice, but then the rule of professionalism should prevail. Other procedures that can be adopted to protect service users and employees are highlighted below:
- As pointed out by (Alcock, Daly and Griggs 2008) that every form of abuses and confidentiality infringement must be rejected to prevent both parties from damaging self-esteem, individual morale and dignity.
- Service providers can design a structural polies and guidelines that regulates the modules operandi of their organisation which will help to guide against excesses.
- Organisational risk control and management can be put in place to reduce any form of harmful occurrence. For example, continuous training of employees on every aspect of the job ranging from tools and material handling to paperwork, this will help to be proactive and ultimately reduce risk margin on the side of the service users.
- Keeping and updating records and important information should be done in a proper and decent manner to ensure accuracy and easy access to information.
- Efforts can also be made to organise a customised form of care planning for both the service provider and users.
2.1 Examine how policies and procedures are developed in accordance with national and local policy requirements.
The legislation regulates the policies and procedures in health and social care organisations generally. However, policies and procedures in the local area can be structured based on the socioeconomic status of the locality or environment. For example, in a locality that is less populated and less challenging socioeconomic, policies and procedures in such place can be designed in line with their needs.
In addition, it is also expected basically for social care organisation to comply fully with standard laid down procedures to guide against any form of unnecessary compromise in the interest of best practice.
More so, it is important to note that people’s needs should be addressed based on individual assessment, for example service users with special needs should be allowed to choose service suitable for themselves in accordance with their financial capabilities.
2.2 Evaluate the impact of policies, legislation, regulation, and codes of practice on organisational policy and practice.
The impact of regulations, legislation and code of practice on health care services policy and practice can not be over emphasised. Service users and providers alike are two major beneficiaries because this is where the main pillar of their protective foundation hinges on and of course outside the legislation and regulation both service providers and users are not protectetd.
Also, the regulatory factor will also enhance the relationship between the client and employees of the health and social care services, since the “do and don’t” as it relates to job ethics are spelt out clearly, it further improves interpersonal conducts and understanding between them.
Moreover, it will help to strengthen and maintain best practice, ethical standard and all of these will impact on risk management, so it is a win-win situation for both in the long run.
3.1 Explain the theories that underpin health and social care practice
One of the major relevant theories that underpin health and social care practice is the system theory that was developed by an Australian biologist called Karl Ludwig VonBertalanffy, he observed that every system is equally a function of its part, meaning no system can work in isolation and to fully comprehend the entirety one must understand the interrelations that exists between these parts.
This theory has major influence on both the service users and providers but mainly it helps to analyse the concept of cause and effect especially on the part of the service users. This will help to some extent to identify some elements that could be responsible for certain reaction at any time to avoid error and minimise risk.
For instance, it is easy to be quick to conclude that a patient under a certain medication or the disease a particular patient is undergoing is the cause of the problem without considering the effect of some factors within the environment like; support network system, developmental stages…, that could possibly be contributing to that reaction.
While individual account should not be completely overlooked, we must ensure that we become more proactive towards the environment and design a smaller system that can protect the patient rather than allowing system failure due to avoidable assumption on an integral part of the system without considering it holistically.
Another relevant theory is social cognitive (1989). According to this theory developed by Bandera, human behaviour reflects knowledge gained from imitation, observation and positive reinforcement. For example, people can react to something they heard or seen in the media especially if what they have observed has yielded dividend or any form of benefit.
Since social cognitive theory emphasised on factors like environmental, social, personal and behavioural elements that influences behavioural changes, with this understanding in mind it will enable service provider and organisation to put in place effective organisation learning aids that will assist in making informed decisions through information technology.
Nevertheless, humanistic theory is also widely embraced in the UK within the health and social care organisation (Edward 2012), it stipulates that individual need one another in structuring ways to protect service users, individual right, independent and dignity (Levin, 2011), it also place significant permutation on how and way to communicate effectively among players within the sector and of course with other interrelated organisation (Eward 2012).
Humanistic theory is strongly connected to the theory of persuasion centred model of the social care operation in the UK which has continuously regulate different policy reform within the sector in recent time.
Again, the social learning theory is yet another that has impacted the health and social care practice in the UK (Jones and Atwa 2009). This theory emphasised on the relevance of learning processes through methods of observation which then can be modelled in term of complying with the regulations of the care plan.
3.2 Analyse the impact of Social Processes and Diversity in Service Users
Researcher findings has proven man is a social animal that will always survive within social groups rather than in isolation or solitary confinement, the quality of life and standard of living is directly connected and even determined by his interaction within the elements in the environment.
Considering this, same principle can be applied to the social caregiver and patient (Pujari, 2014). This implies that programme and activities that encourage interaction and communication between patient can be organised to allow them to share life experience and memories. This interactive session will not only help to serve as a therapy but also as a form of encouragement and inspiration for patients suffering from depression and other psychological diseases (Pujari, 2014).
More so, it can also impact on their lifestyle, habit and mental condition of the people because human being naturally enjoy social company and activities, it will greatly affect their mental and physical wellbeing.
Finally, apart from its positive impact on promoting a more patient-centred care model (King’s Fund, 2011) findings has revealed that patient’s involvement has improved service related to cancer care patient and other residents.
Social processes directive and users engagement in social and health care policy has resulted in a positive paradigm shift from reactive- oriented approach to a more proactive in recent time(Hearnden, 2008), as a result of this incorporation between the service users for instance, the health and social care sector has been able to forecast changes within the culture and put in place measures to address issue related to diversities and population (Hearnden, 2008). Ultimately, this has helped to reduce the menace of social exclusion widely the health and social care system.
3.3 Evaluate the Contribution of Interprofessional working in a health and social care context.
Interprofessional working can be explained as the process whereby agencies, carers, service users etc. partner together to collaborate by engaging in different activities that can help to facilitates better service, development, improvement and sustainability among various agencies and especially to enhance the quality of service and wellbeing of the clients. For example, it can be a working relationship between social workers, police officers, teachers…
In the UK, the NHS and the community care Act1990 has shaped the development and how partnership is being encouraged in the last decades. It has also helped to create policies in great measure to support elderly people as a result of different activities made available for them. These activities keep them occupied addresses their needs and boost their self-confidence and of course it helps them to be independent.
Also, some of these activities can be developed to a big project whereby the people in the care home can put in place a workshop where they can impact knowledge and experience to other people. For example, a teaching room facility can be created where they can teach young student and generate revenue from it. They can equally transfer the expertise they have acquired over the years to the younger generation in order to equip them (Antonen; &Sipila, 1996).
More so, it is important to note that inter-professional working has proven to be effective beyond professional boundaries (Courtenay, 2012). By means of effective collaboration with colleagues, practitioners now can share responsibilities to avoid all sort of barriers that used to hinder collaborative efforts. (Courtney, 2012) The outcome of this process has turned out to be efficient and effective care model.
4.1 Examine roles and responsibilities, accountabilities and duties in health and social care setting
The health and social care sector remain one of the major organisations that protect the vulnerable populace, so they have it as a point of duty to direct and initiate proper organisational policy that will promotes best practice and compliance (Department of health, 2011).
In order to achieve these objectives, they need to constantly engage in improve ethical standards and to make sure patients case load are properly managed.
Another paramount area of responsibility is the quality control and management of the organisation. For example, the food servicing area of the premises must be of high quality where cleanliness and hygiene must be maintained generally at all time.
Again, the policies in place should be designed in a way that will not only improve compliance but will hold violators accountable, this of course will help employees to adopt a proactive approach mode of operations and by so doing avoidable error will be minimised.
Also, proper training and development of staff knowledge based can be encouraged to help improve their expertise and competency in carrying out their expected duties efficiently. It will help to prioritise task among patients in the area of knowing how and when to attend to patients to avoid any form of situation that can lead or perceive to abuse or negligence.
4.2 Evaluate the contribution of one key role in the development and implementation of health and social care organisational policy
Apparently, to ensure proper policies implementation lots of roles are involved and because the setting is usually consisting of diverse of people from different ethnic and cultural background.
The likelihood of report on abuse is inevitable and the core responsibility of curbing this malady rest solely on service provider and to achieve these objective certain factors like professionalism, best practice and strategy management approach to mention few must come to play.
However, the staff of the care home sometimes need to be protected against possible abuse as well. But the most important step is to put policies in place to address these key areas. Some of the policies measure that can be implemented can be highlighted thus:
- Due to a simple fact that some of these incidents happens unaware, a suggestion box or complaint department can be set up to encourage participation.
- A committee in charge of complaints can be set up to see justice served and done. For example, punishment ranging from suspension to firing can be adopted to deter staff depending on the gravity of the offence.
- Policies implementation process can be set up for updating, investigation of client records and cases
- Seminar and workshop can be organised to enlighten the old people and to improve awareness on their basic rights
- Constant counselling should be encouraged to help those that are victim on how to live above abuse and move on in life.
- Inventories of medical materials must always be cross check to avoid misuse and abuse of medicine.
In view of all the various aspect, concept, structure, ethical and moral values involve in health and social care practice, there is no gainsaying that it is indeed a challenging and interesting profession in terms of general expectations.
But it will be recommended that effort must be geared towards attaining best practice through continuous training of staff, ensuring a collaborative working environment through effective inter-professional working, putting in place good support system programme, effective communication policy to boost awareness and to help service provider to make informed decision and of course it is important to place value on accountability and compliance without compromising standard at all times to ensure overall efficiency and effectiveness in service performance.
- lcock, C., Daly, G. and Griggs, E. (2008). Introducing Social Policy, 2nd edit, London: Pearson
- Allcock, P., May, M. and Rowlingson, K. (eds.). (2008). The Student’s Companion to Social Policy, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
- Courtenay, M. (2012). Interprofessional education between nurse prescribing and medical students: a qualitative study. Journal of Interprofessional Care.
- Day, J., & Wigens, L. (2006). Inter-professional working: An essential guide for health and social care professionals. London: Nelson Thornes.
- Edwards, A. (2012). Putting patients first. British Medical Journal, 344, pp. 233-240.
- Hearnden, M. (2008). Coping with differences in culture and communication in health care. Nursing Standard, 23(11), pp. 49-57.
- King’s Fund. (2011). The future of leadership and management in the NHS. [online] Available at: http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/future-leadership-and-management-nhs. Accessed 28 February 2013.
- Levin, R. F., Overholt, E. F., Melnyk, B. M., Barnes, M. and Vetter, M. J. (2011). Fostering evidence-based practice to improve nurse and cost outcomes in a community health setting. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 35(1), pp. 21-33.
- Moon, J.A. (2008). Reflection in learning and professional development: theory and practice. London: Routledge Falmer.
- Pereira, J., Nagarajah, L., Win, K., Joachim, P. and Wjesuriya, L. (2008). Formative feedback to students: the mismatch between faculty perceptions and student expectations. Medical Teacher, 30(4), pp. 395-399.
- Pujari, S. (2014). Social Processes: The Meaning, Types, and Characteristics of Social Processes. Retrieved from: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/social-processes-the-meaning-types-characteristics-of-social-processes/8545/
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