Management Decisions and Practices Employed in Prevention and Control of Coccidiosis

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5th Oct 2020 Nursing Essay Reference this

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Coccidiosis is the poultry's main parasitic disease with significant financial losses owing to malabsorption, the conversion rate of bad feed, decreased weight gain and increased mortality. Coccidia is protozoa that have the capacity to lining the intestine or caeca multiply rapidly within cells. The coccidia species infected with poultry belonging to the genus Eimeria. Many of these species may infect poultry, and between them, there is no cross-immunity. Under field circumstances, most infestations are mixed, but one species will dominate. Eimeria has a life-cycle self-limiting and is defined by an elevated specificity of tissue and host. Coccidiosis control of poultry is primarily based on management abilities and the use of prophylactic coccidiostat drugs, but the use of anticoccidial drugs and/or vaccines for treatment and prevention contributes to a significant price of manufacturing.

Practicing proper farm hygiene and biosecurity, including rodent control and cleaning shoes before going in to sheds and areas, will assist decrease oocyst spread. Previous research has shown that hygienic measures are an important part in stopping coccidiosis from entering and spreading, Because coccidia requires moisture to become infectious, use drinkers, ventilation devices and operating litter as required to prevent moist litter. When practicing hygienic methods Make sure water is clean and fresh and do not give them mediation if the chickens have been vaccinated against coccidiosis, because medication will cancel out the vaccination. The problem with this practise is that it is an inconvenience to farmers to have to do this every time when they enter sheds and the practices of hygiene alone may not always be enough and other techniques may be necessary. But this is a good way to prevent it from happening or to control it when it does affect your flock.

Other options used to control the disease is vaccinations, a broad range of anticoccidial drugs (coccidiostats) for prevention and therapy are usable. The drug selection will rely on the sort of flock, the form of coccidia and the purpose of the drug program. New anticoccidials proceed to be introduced to the poultry industry on an average of about once every 2 years. Revised necessities have increased costs of discovery, development, and approval through the Food and Drug Administration to numerous million greenbacks for every product. Gross income of anticoccidials is now estimated to be in extra of $30,000,000 every year. Anticoccidials are used in designer rations for broilers being raised beneath floor-pen management. Protection is more essential with birds that grow faster than it is with egg-producing birds where cage layer management modify needs for anticoccidials. Coccidiosis mortality has usually been eliminated by all 25 permitted anticoccidials if correctly used. The selection of unique anticoccidials is based on the ability of the anticoccidial to firstly enhance weights, secondly feed conversion, and lastly to suppress the development of lesions. The prices of the product may also impact choices on which one to use. With some anticoccidials, the fast emergence of drug-resistant strains has been the largest problem. "Switching" amongst the thirteen classes of anticoccidials and the so-called "shuttle program" are frequent methods used to avoid the development of resistance. Preventive medication will possibly proceed to constitute the foremost technique of coccidiosis control with meat-type poultry if attempts to advance Current litter and floor-pen management are not replaced by financial cage-type leadership. There is more immunity obtained by incidental or scheduled immunization/ vaccinations essential in control of coccidiosis with layer and breeder flocks raised in floor-pens. Some growth in the development of avirulent immunogenic strains of distinct species of coccidia has been suggested and further research efforts in this direction should be encouraged.

Coccidia oocysts with strong ability for reproduction can freely spread in the poultry home and keeping chickens free of coccidia, particularly under extensive breeding circumstances, is a difficult job. Throughout the litter, oocysts sporulate easily. However, degradation, environmental harm and oxygen from the litter influence the sporulation of oocysts, That can have an impact on their efficacy. Removal of soaked litter and ventilation of poultry buildings is performed at an period of 2-3 weeks practices, and top dressing with new litter is recommended before putting a new flock in. Strict biocontrol interventions taken by poultry farmers can play a major part in limiting the spread of poultry. By keeping feeding zones clean and dry will make sure the feed will not be contaminated and also make sure your hens have enough room as coccidiosis will start in a crowded region. Chickens need four square feet of room where they can lay there eggs and providing medicated starter food for chickens.

Coccidia infections are often connected with serious financial losses. Currently, coccidiosis prevention and control is focused on excellent hygiene, management of the poultry house, and immunization. Monitoring programs are crucial to the development of resistance for early identification types. Anticoccidial drugs or vaccination alone are generally of little importance unless they are followed by advances In all management aspects. Farm-level improved sanitation and hygiene should be provided more thought. Including all parameters that can enhance litter performance such as; appropriate assembly and handling of watering devices, sufficient feeding room, suggested storage density and suitable ventilation.

 

Bibliography

  • Coccidiosis - Poultry Hub. (2019). Poultry Hub. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from http://www.poultryhub.org/health/disease/types-of-disease/coccidiosis/
  • Tellez, G., Shivaramaiah, S., Barta, J., Hernandez-Velasco, X., & Hargis, B. (2014). Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites. Veterinary Medicine: Research And Reports, 23. doi:10.2147/vmrr.s57839
  • Use of Anticoccidial Medications and Vaccines in Poultry Production - eXtension. (2019). Articles.extension.org. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://articles.extension.org/pages/66917/use-of-anticoccidial-medications-and-vaccines-in-poultry-production
  • Coccidiosis. (2019). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccidiosis
  • Coops, B. (2019). Coccidiosis in Chickens - Prevention, Symptoms and Treatment Tips. Backyard Chicken Coops. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://www.backyardchickencoops.com.au/blogs/learning-centre/coccidiosis-in-chickens-prevention-symptoms-and-treatment-tips
  • Coccidiosis - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (2019). Sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/coccidiosis

Baycox Coccidiocide Solution is for the treatment and control of coccidiosis in chickens caused by Eimeria species. Baycox Coccidiocide contains Toltrazuril, an active constituent which destroys all intracellular stages of the pathogen's life cycle in the intestine, without impairing the chicken's ability to acquire lifelong natural immunity against coccidia.

Coccidiosis is one of the more common and costly diseases in poultry. Infected birds may stop eating but they will continue to drink, so Baycox Poultry is administered as a water medication. Baycox Poultry offers a unique formulation that differs considerably from other coccidiocides, such that it includes an ingredient that makes it unpalatable for animal species other than poultry.

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